Abstracts volume 56 (2013) 1-107

Short communication
Characterisation of carcass composition and meat quality of male suckling buffalo calves kept on natural grassland
Gabriella Holló, Brigitta Barna and Karin Nuernberg
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 107, 1060-1065 | 11 March 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-107

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The aim of this observational study (field experiment) was to evaluate carcass composition and meat quality of male suckling buffalo calves. The animals were born between June and September 2011 and were kept on natural pasture in a cow/calf herd. From the end of November 2011, the suckling calves were fed only roughage as feed supplement in a feedlot until slaughter. For a generalised characterisation, the basic statistics of 18 male calves were calculated. The animals were slaughtered at an average live weight of 196.0 kg. Growth, live weight development and most carcass traits varied substantially between individual calves. The 12th rib muscle composition measured by computer tomography indicated comparable meat contents as evaluated by manual dissection of the carcass. Meat quality parameters (pH and colour) and the nutrient composition (protein, fat, ash) of longissimus muscle samples of calves were relatively similar. The intramuscular fat content of longissimus muscle was low, but shows a high variation between 0.3 - 1.1%.

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Original study (Abstract)
The use of sexual activity measurements to assess ejaculatory performance of boars
Stanisław Kondracki, Maria Iwanina, Anna Wysokińska and Krzysztof Górski
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 106, 1052-1059 | 2 December 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-106

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The study involved 50 insemination boars, aged between 8-9 months at the beginning of the study. Each boar was assessed four times for its sexual activity: at the beginning of breeding service and after 3, 6 and 9 months into the insemination service. Ejaculates were collected for the purpose of the sexual activity parameters’ assessment. Physical parameters of the ejaculates were subsequently analysed. Pearson’s linear correlation was used to calculate the coefficients of a phenotypic correlation between sexual activity levels and physical parameters of the ejaculates. Following from that, an appropriate analysis was conducted as to the changes in boars’ sexual activity examined throughout their dynamic, sexual development. It was proved, that ejaculate volume depends on the total time of copulation. The highest correlation between ejaculate volume and sexual urge levels was observed in the youngest boars at the beginning of insemination service. The correlation between the ejaculatory efficiency and a boar’s libido, changes with age and sexual development. Changes in ejaculatory efficiency are the most dynamic at the age of approx. 1.5 years. It is at that age, when ejaculate volume and ejaculate sperm count dynamically increase. The insemination fitness forecasting in case of boars should include libido measurements taken at the beginning of an insemination service – within the first three months. Measurements taken at a more advanced age are of little use for the purpose of ejaculatory efficiency forecasting in case of boars.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of milk replacer feeding program on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves
Leo O. Fiems, Johan L. De Boever and José M. Vanacker
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 105, 1039-1051 | 2 December 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-105

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One hundred and four Belgian Blue double-muscled calves were divided into four groups to examine the effects of different milk replacer (MR) programs. Calves in treatment group 1 received a MR diet reconstituted at 125 g/l, fed at 10 % of their initial live weight in two meals daily. Weaning occurred abruptly at a concentrate intake of 0.5 kg/d. Treatment 2 was similar to treatment 1, except that weaning occurred at a concentrate intake of 0.75 kg/d. Treatment 3 was similar to treatment 2, except that MR was fed once daily at 5% of initial body weight from a concentrate intake of 0.5 kg/d onwards. Treatment 4 was similar to treatment 3, except that MR at a concentration of 200 g/l was fed once daily from the third week until a concentrate intake of 0.5 kg/d. Similar concentrates and grass hay were fed. Pre-weaning gain averaged 0.51, 0.57, 0.56 and 0.53 kg/d, respectively (P<0.05; SEM: 0.01). Daily nutrient intake was lowest for treatment 1. No effect on diarrhoea was found. Post-weaning gain did not differ among treatments. Daily gain during the whole rearing period (20 weeks) averaged 0.83 kg and was not affected by treatment. Calves assigned to treatment 1 had a lower daily intake of MR, while feed efficiency tended to be worse. Weaning can be successfully accelerated by skipping over a meal when concentrate intake exceeded 0.5 kg/d, or by combining one MR meal daily with an increased concentration of 200 g/l from an age of 3 weeks onwards.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of different phytases on the performance, nutrient retention and tibia composition in broiler chickens
Anna Ptak, Damian Józefiak, Bartosz Kierończyk, Mateusz Rawski, Krzysztof Żyła and Sylwester Świątkiewicz
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 104, 1028-1033 | 20 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-104

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The effect of different phytases on the performance response, nutrient utilization and tibia characteristics of chickens was investigated. The five pelleted diets were the following: positive control (PC) with added monocalcium phosphate; negative control (NC) formulated with equivalency values of phytase for Ca and digestible P; and three further diets where different phytases were individually added to the NC diet at 500 FTU/kg. The phytases were derived either from Aspergillus (phytase I), or E. coli (phytases II and III). As compared to PC, the performance parameters, as well as AMEn, mineral retention, bone breaking force and tibia mineral content were suppressed by the reduction of dietary Ca and digestible P. All phytases enhanced the overall body weight gains and feed conversion ratio in comparison with NC, but none outperformed PC. Only phytase II improved AMEn as compared to NC and PC group. However only phytase I outperformed NC group in terms of mineral retention, and in P retention was higher than also phytase II and III. No significant differences were observed in fat digestibility and N retention. Bone strength among phytases did not differ, and all improved this parameter as compared to the NC diet. However, even though all phytases enhanced tibia minerals content, the improvement was less pronounced with phytase III. Moreover, the differences in all analysed tibia minerals between phytase III and II were significant suggesting that even among 6-phytases derived from and expressed in the same organism, different efficacy or mode of action can occur.

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Short communication (Abstract)
A database for efficient storage and management of multi panel SNP data
Eildert Groeneveld and Cong VC Truong
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 103, 1023-1027 | 20 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-103

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The fast development of high throughput genotyping has opened up new possibilities in genetics while at the same time producing immense data handling issues. A system design and proof of concept implementation are presented which provides efficient data storage and manipulation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in a relational database. A new strategy using SNP and individual selection vectors allows us to view SNP data as matrices or sets. These genotype sets provide an easy way to handle original and derived data, the latter at basically no storage costs. Due to its vector based database storage, data imports and exports are much faster than those of other SNP databases. In the proof of concept implementation, the compressed storage scheme reduces disk space requirements by a factor of around 300. Further, this design scales linearly with number of individuals and SNPs involved. The procedure supports panels of di.erent sizes. This allows a straight forward management of different panel sizes in the same population as occur in animal breeding programs when higher density panels replace previous lower density versions.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of time, amount and frequency of feeding on total egg production, fertility and hatchability in broiler breeders
Majid Gholami Soltanmoradi, Alireza Seidavi, Mohammad Dadashbeiki, Fernando Delgado and Sandra Gamboa
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 102, 1014-1022 | 20 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-102

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The effects of timing, the amount and the frequencies of feeding on the performance of broiler breeders (Ross 308) at the age of 31-38 weeks were studied. The broiler breeders were randomly assigned to each of 15 treatments (T). These included once a day feeding, in which birds were fed once at 04.00 (T1=control), twice (T2 to T7), thrice a day (T8 to T13) and four (T14 and T15) times per day. The daily feed allotment was divided into different ratios with different time schedules. The nutritional composition of all experimental groups was similar. Eggs were collected at 8.00, 10.00, 14.00 and 16.00. The results obtained showed that feeding schedule resulted in significant differences (p<0.05) in egg production (% hen), as well as the fertility and hatchability. Results obtained in our study suggest that allocation of restricted feed two times a day, in a 75:25 ratio (4.00 and 12.00) improved egg production, fertility and hatchability.

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Original study (Abstract)
A modified Mitscherlich model and its degradation kinetics equations
Fatih Uckardes
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 101, 1005-1013 | 20 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-101

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The aim of this study was to show how to adapt and convert the Mitscherlich model to animal nutrition studies in a theoretical way. The new form of the model was obtained by applying mathematical conversion step by step to use Mitscherlich model in in vitro gas production or in situ nylon bag studies which has an important role in animal nutrition. The parameter which is not included in new model but important for digestion was gained to the model. Moreover, it was shown how to obtain important digestion equations by using the new form of Mitscherlich model and also the equation formulas were obtained for both with and without lag-phase. Consequently, it was shown how to convert a model, which is previously not used in terms of animal nutrition, into a different purposive form and how to obtain the new equations from this form step by step in a theoretical way. Besides, the new form of Mitscherlich model which is an alternative to other models will importantly contribute to the literature by obtaining some important equations which are not found in many of the other models.

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Original study (Abstract)
Comparison of different control strategies for classical swine fever using emergency vaccination and rapid PCR testing by using a Monte-Carlo simulation model
Julia Brosig, Imke Traulsen, Sandra Blome, Klaus Depner and Joachim Krieter
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 100, 988-1004 | 14 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-100

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Whenever an outbreak of classical swine fever has occurred in the European Union (EU), the basic control measures have usually been supplemented by preventive culling. This strategy has led to a great number of culled pigs, which is discussed by general public and politics from both ethical and economic points of view. Emergency vaccination has been deemed to be an alternative control measure for some time now. PCR testing also provides a possible future strategy, since this method would allow a rapid and reliable testing of pigs in the vicinity of an outbreak farm. In this study, a spatial and temporal Monte-Carlo simulation model was used to compare alternative control strategies based upon these two measures (‘Emergency Vaccination’, ‘Test To Slaughter’, ‘Test To Control’ and ‘Vaccination in conjunction with Rapid Testing') with the current control strategy. Two regions for investigation with different farm densities were used in the model. In a region with a low farm density, the basic EU control measures seemed to be sufficient to control an epidemic. In a region with a high farm density, additional measures would be necessary. ‘Emergency Vaccination’ in a 3 km application zone and ‘Traditional Control’ reached the same level of infected farms. Both ‘Test To Slaughter’ and ‘Test To Control’ combined with preventive culling led to a lower number of infected farms compared to the sole preventive culling strategy. The alternative control measures can reduce the number of culled farms significantly compared to ‘Traditional Control’.

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Original study (Abstract)
Plasma proteomic profiles of healthy and mastitic cows – host responses to bovine mastitis
LiLi Niu, CaiHong Wei and LiXin Du
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 99, 980-987 | 14 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-099

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Mastitis is the most common disease in dairy cows and has resulted in a tremendous economic loss in dairy industry. In the present study, differentially expressed proteins (DEP) were identified among healthy, moderate and severe mastitic cows through proteomic profiling. The health status of cows was closely determined by the somatic cell count (SCC). DEPs were resolved using the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with the pH 4-7 non-linear DryStrips. Subsequently, 8 protein spots, which altered over 3-fold, were isolated and identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The identified spots were split into four proteins: α-2-HS-glycoprotein, serum albumin, transthyretin and haptoglobin, respectively. Compared with the healthy cows, the expression of haptoglobin was up-regulated in mastitic cows, and the others were down-regulated. Moreover, the proteomic data were consistent with the results of Western blot. All of the identified DEPs were acute phase proteins, which acted on together and represented the consequence of serial cascades after mastitic infection. More importantly, the α-2-HS-glycoprotein was novel identified corresponding to the bovine mastitis in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. Taken together, our results indicate that the host responses may play an important role in the pathogenesis of mastitis and provide the potential diagnostic indicator of the underlying mastitis in dairy cows.

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Original study (Abstract)
Environmental effects and repeatability estimates for sperm production and semen quality of Holstein bulls
Ismaïl Boujenane and Khouloud Boussaq
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 98, 971-979 | 14 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-098

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The purpose of this study was to estimate environmental effects on semen production of AI Holstein bulls managed under Moroccan conditions. A total of 4046 ejaculates collected from 34 Holstein bulls in the years 2009-2013 were analysed. Studied variables were volume, concentration, total number of spermatozoa, mass motility, individual motility and post-thawing motility. Data were analysed by REML method using the mixed model including the random effect of bull and the fixed effects of age at collection, season of collection, year of collection, interval between two collections and ejaculate order. The effect of age of bulls was significant for all studied variables, except for mass motility. Spring and winter were the best seasons for sperm production and quality. Bulls collected once a day at one day interval produced monthly 30 %, 86 %, 156 %, 183 % and 185 % more motile spermatozoa than those collected once a day at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days interval, respectively. Moreover, bulls collected twice a day at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days interval produced monthly (sum of motile spermatozoa obtained at 1st and 2nd ejaculates) 77 %, 70 %, 65 %, 68 %, 84 % and 91 % more than those collected once a day at the same interval, respectively. Repeatability estimates for semen traits were medium to high. They varied from 0.157 for mass motility to 0.411 for ejaculate volume. It was concluded that environmental factors clearly contribute to semen production in Holstein bulls and short interval between collections and two collections per day are maximising sperm production.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of breed and age on beef carcass quality, fatness and fatty acid composition
Nikolina Kelava Ugarković, Ante Ivanković and Miljenko Konjačić
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 97, 958-970 | 14 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-097

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The aim of this research was to determine differences in beef carcass fatness and in the fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of three different breeds slaughtered at the of 14 months and 19 months. Breed significantly affected the muscle fat content, carcass subcutaneous fat tissue thickness and fatty acid composition of the muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue. Different age at slaughter had no significant effect on analyzed traits. The muscle tissue of the Herefords contained a higher (p<0.05) percentage of C14:0 and C16:0 fatty acids, and fewer long-chain fatty acids than the Simmentals and Charolais. The subcutaneous fat tissue of the Simmentals contained a higher (p<0.05) percentage of PUFA, PUFA/SFA ratio and n-6 fatty acids. When fed with a high-energy diet, the Herefords proved to have the most fattened carcasses and the highest content of saturated fatty acids in the muscle. Changes in the diet of feedlot cattle should result in a more favorable fatty acid composition.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of breed, grazing system and concentrate supplementation on fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality of steers
Matthias Schmutz, Peter Weindl, Salome Carrasco, Gerhard Bellof and Eggert Schmidt
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 96, 943-957 | 14 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-096

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The aim of the study was to test the influence of breed, grazing system and concentrate level on fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality of steers. Ninety-six German Simmental (GS) and German Holstein (GH) steers were fattened using two different grazing systems: continuous grazing system (CGS) and rotational grazing system (RGS). They were supplemented with medium (M) or low (L) concentrate levels. The trial period involved 22 months divided into four phases: phase 1 (indoor), 2 (grazing), 3 (indoor vs. outdoor) and 4 (grazing). In phases 1 and 3 the animals were offered grass silage ad libitum. All animals were supplied with concentrate during phase 1. In phases 3 and 4 the animals were supplied with M or L. Group M consumed a total of 275 kg and group L 191 kg per steer of concentrate. GS steers were significantly superior in all essential parameters of the fattening performance and the carcass value (e.g. final weight: 631 kg vs. 608 kg). GH steers showed better meat quality (intramuscular fat content, tenderness, meat color) than GS steers. The impact of the grazing system was only for a few parameters (carcass weight, dressing percentage and fat color). The CGS showed higher grazing yield and higher content of nutrients than the RGS, as a consequence, CGS steers presented heavier carcass weight than RGS steers. Concentrate levels had no effects on the evaluated parameters.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of the first and next calvings of cows and their milk production level on the relationship between dry period length and milk yield and its composition in the subsequent lactation
Anna Sawa, Mariusz Bogucki and Kamil Siatka
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 95, 934-942 | 14 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-095

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The effect cow age and milk production level was analized on the relationship between dry period length and milk yield and composition in the subsequent lactation. The GLM and CORR PEARSON procedures of the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. It is shown that in terms of milk yield in the subsequent lactation, a dry period of 40-60 days was the most favourable. In particular in primiparous cows it was found that in terms of milk yield, shortening the dry period is less favourable than extending it beyond the 41- to 60-day standard. A dry period of 21-40 days can be offered to multiparous cows without significant milk losses in the subsequent lactation. Eliminating or shortening the dry period should exclude cows after first calving. It seems that a dry period of 21-40 days can also be offered to high-producing cows (≥8,000 kg milk) because their milk yield, in relation to cows dried for 41-60 days, was lower by 3.5%. Shortening the dry period has a positive effect on the concentration of basic milk components such as fat and protein, causing them to increase. Dry period length had no effect on milk lactose content.

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Original study (Abstract)
Associations between paratuberculosis status and milk production traits in Holstein cattle under consideration of interaction effects between test result and farm and lactation number
Julia Küpper, Horst Brandt, Karsten Donat and Georg Erhardt
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 94, 924-933 | 6 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-094

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One of the most important factors for economic losses as result of infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the decrease in milk yield. Different phenotyping methods for MAP lead to inconsistent impact of MAP infection on milk parameters. It was the aim of the study to analyze the effect of the MAP status on milk yield, milk fat and milk protein (in kilograms), as well as on the calving interval and milk kilograms per day of life in German Holstein cattle. A dataset of 9,367 fecal culture tested animals from 14 farms in Thuringia (Germany) were available. The MAP status of the animals affected milk yield and the milk parameters. Beside the effects of farm, lactation number and MAP status, the interaction between MAP status and farm on the milk parameters was significant. The latter result is a possible explanation for the inconsistent results from recent studies. For milk kg per day of life, the interaction between lactation number and MAP status also showed significance.

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Original study (Abstract)
The effect of the diversified signal of melatonin on milk yields in seasonally breeding sheep
Edyta Molik, Marta Pasternak, Michal Błasiak, Tomasz Misztal, Katarzyna Romanowicz and Dorota Zieba
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 93, 924-932 | 5 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-093

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Previous studies demonstrated that milk yields in sheep displaying strong seasonal sexual activity depend on the day length. The objective of the studies was to determine whether the introduction of melatonin in high pregnancy affects milk secretion in seasonally sheep.The studies were carried out on 60 Polish Longwool sheep. Sheep were allocated to 3 groups: G I (n=20 – the control group – lambed in February), G II (n=20 - a group of sheep lambed in June and kept under natural day-length conditions), G III (n=20 – a group of sheep with melatonin implants injected 6 weeks before lambing – sheep lambed in June). Lambs were reared with mothers up to 56th day of their life. When lambs were weaned, ewes were milked mechanically twice a day up to the dry period. Once a month collective milk samples were drawn from 6 sheep from each group in order to determine the concentration of melatonin. Milk yields were subject to individual checks every 10 days. The studies demonstrated that sheep lambed in February (G I) displayed the highest milk yields in the milking period (37.8±8.1l). The milk performance of the two other groups was lower and amounted to 30.2±9.4 liter in case of sheep lambed in June and to 29.2±7.6 liter in sheep with melatonin implants. The introduction of melatonin signal to produce a short-day condition in state of high pregnancy in ewes caused a drop of milk yields both in the period of lambs raising and during milking.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of heat stress on acid base balance in Polish Merino sheep
Krzysztof Wojtas, Przemyslaw Cwynar, Roman Kolacz and Robert Kupczynski
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 92, 917-923 | 5 November 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-092

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Effect of heat stress on changes in acid-base balance, physiological parameters and cortisol level were evaluated in Polish Merino sheep. Fifteen sheep were exposed to high temperature conditions (30 °C) in order to induce heat stress. All environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity and air movement were monitored. Decrease of pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) in blood and tCO2 (concentration of total CO2) and increase of pO2 were observed. Cortisol level also significantly increased. In next stage of the experiment soothing effect of air movement was examined. An increased air movement led to a soothing of thermal stress. An increase in pCO2 and decrease in cortisol level were observed. The study showed that heat stress leads to changes in acid base balance and cortisol secretion. Air movement has a soothing effect on heat stress in Polish Merino sheep.

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Original study (Abstract)
In vivo effect of Berberis lyceum and Silybum marianum on production performance and immune status in broiler chicks
Muhammad Mushtaq, Shabana Naz, Sarzamin Khan, Sajid-ur-Rehman and Rifat Ullah Khan
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 91, 911-916 | 3 September 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-091

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We conducted an in vivo experiment to study the effect of water-based infusion of Berberis lyceum and Silybum marianum on production performance and immune level in broiler chicks. A total of 120 day old broiler chicks were obtained from the same parent flock, and divided into four experimental groups i.e., WBI-0 (control), WBI-5 (5ml/l), WBI-10 (10ml/l) and WBI-20 (20ml/l). Each group was further divided into three replicates with 10 chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. The birds were reared in separate pens for 35 days in an open sided house. Low feed intake (P>0.05) but higher weight gain (P<0.05), dressing percentage (P>0.05) and FCR (P>0.05) were observed in group WBI-20. High level of antibody titer was also observed in group WBI-20 against the Newcastle and infectious bronchitis antigen, while significantly high (P<0.05) antibody titer against infectious bursal disease was recorded in WBI-10. Based on the experimental findings, it was concluded that water based infusion of 20 ml/l resulted as a valuable source to enhance production traits and to boost up immunity in broilers.

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Original study (Abstract)
Intravital assessment of body composition of cows in various production periods using urea dilution procedures
Maciej Adamski
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 90, 899-910 | 23 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-090

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Changes in the body condition of cows are directly linked with changes in body weight and composition, and also influence their health status and productivity. In order to assess body composition, an urea dilution method was used. The method depends on the calculation of urea space resulting from differences in urea concentrations in blood before and after the infusion of urea solution. The method is quick, not dangerous for animals and the analysis are relatively simple. The aim of this study was an attempt of an assessment of body composition of cows in the range of protein, lipids and water content in various production stages with changing condition. The research was conducted on 24 cows divided into 3 groups: beginning of lactation, middle of lactation, end of lactation. The present study confirmed the thesis that various production stages are accompanied by changes in body composition and condition of the cows, and the changes may be determined with a high accuracy using urea method.

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Original study (Abstract)
Lactation curve of Beetal goats in Pakistan
Abdul Waheed and Muammad Sajjad Khan
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 89, 892-898 | 23 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-089

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This study was accomplished with the objective to determine parameters of lactation curves in Beetal goats using Wood’s model. Therefore, milk yield data on 127 Beetal goats maintained at five different government farms were recorded from post-kidding to drying off of does. Wood model parameters were estimated using non-linear regression and individual curves were fitted. The characteristics/parameters of lactation curve were computed. The mean initial yield »a«, rate of increase »b« and rate of decline »c« parameters in Wood’s model for Beetal were 1,214.97, 0.3690 and 0.1196, respectively with R2 value of 98.2 %. The value of percent squared bias (PSB) and the persistency were 0.13 and 60.2%, respectively with mean square error value of 38.45. Flock effect was a significant (P<0.01) source of variation for all the lactation curve parameters, PSB and persistency. Parity did not affect significantly any of the parameters. Type of birth significantly influenced parameter »a«, Time to reach peak (TPY) and lactation milk yield (LMY). Sex of kid also did not affect significantly any of the parameters. Age of doe was significant for parameters »a«, »b«, »c«. Quadratic effect of age was non-significant for all parameters and characteristics. Lactation length significantly affected parameter »a«, »b« and LMY.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effects of calf separation and injection of oxytocin on milk performance and milk composition of the Polish Red cows
Edward Dymnicki, Ewa Sosin-Bzducha and Marcin Gołębiewski
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 88, 882-891 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-088

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The aim of this study was to analyse the yield and composition of milk from Polish Red cattle after 12-hour isolation of calves. Sixty six Polish Red cows were kept together with calves. Control milkings were carried out once a month after 12-hour isolation of calves. Five subsequent milkings after calving were taken under consideration. In the season (May–July 2012) oxytocin (OXT, 1 ml, 3 min before control milking) was injected. The milk of cows milked mechanically after 12-hour isolation of calves was characterized by a very low fat content (0.47-0.58 %) depending on the month after calving. There were no differences in protein and lactose content compared to the standard composition of cow’s milk. The milk yield was 6.16 kg in the first milking after calving and 3.55-4.01 kg in the four further milkings. After administration of OXT a significant increase of milk was observed in the first (12.9 kg) and subsequent months of lactation (8.5-12.4 kg). Milk fat content was significantly higher (4.14 % in the first and 3.39-3.86 % in the further milkings).

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Original study (Abstract)
Factors affecting lactation length and effect of current lactation length on the subsequent production and reproduction in Iranian Holsteins
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 87, 873-881 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-087

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Calving records of Holstein cows from January 1983 to December 2006 comprising 1,190 herds with 385,102 calving events were used to evaluate factors affecting the length of lactation and effect of current lactation length on the next productive and reproductive performances of Iranian Holsteins. Statistical analyses of productive and reproductive traits in this study were performed as linear mixed models. Lactation length (LL) of cows was grouped into 10 classes from <100 days through 500 days. Average LL was 314 days in Iranian Holsteins. Primiparous cows had the greatest LL and the mean of LL increased over the years from 1983 to 2006 and spring calvers had the longest LL (P<0.05). Cows within the LL class of 500 had the greatest unadjusted milk yield, adjusted milk yield, adjusted protein yield and adjusted fat yield and also had the longest calving intervals (P<0.05). Cows within the LL classes of 150-199 and 200-249 had the greatest values of adjusted protein percentage. Also, age at calving was the lowest for the LL class of 250-299 (P<0.05). There were linear and increasing trends for unadjusted milk yield, adjusted milk yield, adjusted protein yield and adjusted fat yield over the LL classes in this study, but a linear but decreasing trend was observed for adjusted protein percentage over LL classes. On the other hand, there were non-linear relationships between adjusted fat percentage, calving interval and age at calving with LL classes in the current study.

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Original study (Abstract)
A note on pigs' knowledge of hidden objects
Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach and Eberhard von Borell
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 86, 861-872 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-086

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Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer´s sight. This ability is adaptive not only for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment, allowing them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals, too, might profit from object permanence as the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects' environment, which in turn might affect the level of stress under husbandry conditions. We conducted two experiments to examine the ability of object permanence in young domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). For this purpose we used a test setup that was formerly developed for primates and adopted it to the behavioural constraints of pigs. A rewarded object was hidden in one of three hiding locations with an increasing complexity of the objects movement through successive test sessions. Subjects were confronted with visible and invisible displacement tasks as well as with transpositions of hidden objects in different contextual settings. Pigs solved visible, but not invisible displacements or transpositions, indicating that they have difficulties to keep track of once hidden and then moved objects. This should be taken into account when designing husbandry environments or study designs.

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Original study (Abstract)
Instrumental colour measurement as a tool for light veal carcasses on-line evaluation
Alberto Horcada, Manuel Juárez, Antonio Molina, Mercedes Valera and Mª José Beriain
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 85, 851-860 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-085

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Eight-hundred and forty-five veal carcasses (535 males and 310 females) from Pirenaica breed and its crosses with Charolais and Limousin were used to compare carcass colour visual assessments 60 min post-mortem with the values obtained using a spectrocolorimeter (CIE Lab colour system) on the pectoralis superficialis muscle. Carcass weights ranged between 240 and 360 kg. Visual colour was subjectively evaluated by two trained assessors. The best correlation between visual appraisal and L* was observed in carcasses of 300-320 kg. A relatively strong correlation between visual appraisal and a* values was observed in carcasses of 280-300 kg of weight. However, the correlation between b* and visual appraisal was low. Using discriminant functions that included L* and a*, the spectrocolorimeter classified correctly 60 % of carcasses in the class colour assigned by the assessors. In fact, 99% of male and 96 % of female carcasses were correctly assigned in the most common colour of veal carcasses in the Spanish market ('pink', 5). These results indicate that on-line instrumental colour measurements on pectoralis superficialis muscle could be recommended to objectively evaluate carcass colour of commercial veal for the Spanish market.

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Original study (Abstract)
The effect of Myrtus communis oil extract on growth performance, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks fed diet containing aflatoxin B1
Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mohsen Mohamadi Saei, Ali Nikkhah and Hasan Ahmadvand
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 84, 842-850 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-084

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A study was conducted to investigate the capability of Myrtus communis essential oil (MCE) in counteracting the deleterious effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. In a completely randomized design, 300 day-old male chicks were assigned to four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds for 42 days. Chickens, up to day 7 of age, were fed the same diet and then, they were fed the experimental diets. The dietary treatments were 1) the negative control (no dietary aflatoxin or MCE), 2) the positive control (diet containing AFB1 at 0.5 mg/kg, without MCE), 3) diet containing AFB1 at 0.5 mg/kg plus 500 mg/kg MCE, and 4) basal diet containing 500 mg/kg MCE, without AFB1. Growth performance was measured from day 7 to 42. Serum biochemical parameters, organ weights on day 42 and the antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses on day 28 of age were determined. Addition of aflatoxin to diet decreased (P<0.05) the weight gain and feed intake and MCE supplementation diminished (P<0.05) the inhibitory effects of AFB1 on the growth performance. Addition of AFB1 to diet of chicks increased the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and decreased the antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses. Addition of MCE to diet alleviated the negative effects of AFB1 on these parameters (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that addition of MCE may reduce the adverse effects of AFB1 on broiler chickens.

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Original study (Abstract)
Isolation, bioinformatic analysis and tissue expression profile of a novel water buffalo gene MFG-E8
Chunfeng Wu, Lixian Liu, Jinlong Huo, Dalin Li, Yueyun Yuan, Feng Yuan and Yongwang Miao
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 83, 833-841 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-083

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Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a milk membrane-associated glycoprotein, which plays a critical role in phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and mammary gland development, involution and remodeling. In the present study, the complete CDS of water buffalo MFG-E8 was obtained and characterized. The genetic variations of nine water buffalo were investigated. Further, the tissue expression profile was carried out using Quantitative real-time PCR method. The full-length coding region of MFG-E8 from water buffalo tissues consists of 1296 nucleotides, which encodes 431 amino acids with a molecular weight of 47.85 kDa and a pI of 7.02. Bioinformatic prediction indicates that the MFG-E8 protein contains one signal peptide, two repeated EGF-like domains in its N-terminal side and two repeated discoidinlike Factor 5/Factor 8 domains in its amino acids. The sequence homology analysis in Bovidae family revealed that the coding region of water buffalo MFG-E8 had 98.5, 98.3, 93.9, and 88.0 % identity with that of cattle, yak, goat and sheep. There was no polymorphism found in water buffalo, but there existed five nucleotide differences between water buffalo and other bovine species. The phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of MFG-E8 from thirteen species revealed that buffalo had a closer genetic relationship with the species of Bovidae family. Real-time PCR analysis showed that water buffalo MFG-E8 gene was expressed in various tissues, but at different levels. The expression levels of this gene were higher in the mammary gland than in other tissues, suggesting that the MFG-E8 protein plays a role in mammary gland functions.

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Original study (Abstract)
Application of nanosilver based preparation in ammonia reduction in broiler house
Katarzyna Czyż, Bożena Patkowska-Sokoła, Zbigniew Dobrzański and Sebastian Opaliński
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 82, 823-832 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-082

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The aim of the study was to determine the degree of nanotechnological-mineral preparation based on nanosilver and vermiculite effectiveness in ammonia reduction, and an influence of the preparation on physical properties of litter and air. Preparation used was obtained spreading water nanosilver suspension on vermiculite with an addition of 5% of humodetrynite. Research material were broiler chickens divided into three groups. The particular groups were differentiated as regards the preparation application. The measurements of ammonia concentrations were conducted in upper litter layer and about 30 cm above the litter. Litter temperature, humidity and pH, and air humidity and temperature were monitored The measurements were conducted at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 day of the experiment. Ammonia content above the litter was reduced both in group I and II. The highest ammonia concentration was observed in the control group at sampling 4 while the lowest one was noted in group II at sampling 2. In all the groups an influence of the preparation on ammonia content above the litter was visible. Decrease in ammonia concentration in experimental groups when compared to the control group was more distinct than in the case of ammonia concentration above the litter. Based on the results it is difficult to determine unequivocally an influence of preparation on litter temperature, pH and humidity, and also on air temperature and humidity. Taking into account level of ammonia reduction, the results may be a premise for further studies in the range of nanosilver application in animals buildings sanitization.

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Original study (Abstract)
Association between rump score and course of parturition in cows
Anna Sawa, Mariusz Bogucki, Sylwia Krężel-Czopek and Wojciech Neja
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 81, 816-822 | 12 August 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-081

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Analysis was made of the effect of rump angle and rump width, assessed using a 9-point scoring system, on the course of parturition in cows representing the active population in Pomorze and Kujawy regions of Poland. GLM and FREQ procedures of the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. The most frequent score for rump angle was 5 (44 % of all scores) and that for rump width was 6 (30 % of all scores). Human intervention was required for 7 % of calvings, of which dystocia (surgical treatment, injury to the cow or calf, embryotomy) occurred in 0.19 % and caesarean section was performed in 0.11 % of the cases. The course of parturition was affected to a greater extent by rump angle (P<0.01) than by rump width. The largest proportion of difficult parturitions (over 8 %) was noted when the cows that calved received rump angle scores of 1-2 or 8-9 points, while raised rump (1-2 points) increased the proportion of dystocia and caesarean sections. The average score for rump angle in the case of unassisted and easy calvings was 4.95 and 5.02 points, respectively (corresponding to the most desirable, slightly sloping rump), and 4.6 points in the case of dystocia and caesarean sections. A much higher proportion of difficult parturitions and dystocia was also found in cows with too narrow a rump scored as 1-2 points and in those with a wide rump (8-9 points).

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Original study (Abstract)
The effect of the calving season on the Wood’s model parameters and characteristics of the lactation curve in Czech Fleckvieh cows
Tomáš Kopec, Gustav Chládek, Josef Kučera, Daniel Falta, Oto Hanuš and Petr Roubal
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 80, 808-815 | 18 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-080

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a calving season on the Wood’s model parameters of the lactation curve and its characteristics in Czech Fleckvieh cows. The observed Czech Fleckvieh cows (with minimum 75 % of CF breed in the genotype) born in 1994-2007 formed three parity groups: parity 1 - 350,853 cows, parity 2 - 269,276 cows and parity 3 - 175,029 cows. All the parity groups were further classified by the calving season: winter (December-February), spring (March – May), summer (June-August) and autumn (September-November). The Wood’s function parameters (a, b, c) were calculated and the lactation characteristics estimated: partial milk yields per 1-100 days, 100-200 days and a total milk yield 305-d, the peak yield – amount and day, IP (index of persistency) 2:1 and a coefficient of the declination rate of the lactation curve. The calving season significantly affected the parameters (a, b, c) of the lactation curve, the persistency of lactation and the number of days-in-milk at peak yield; it had no significant effect on the other characteristics. In general, the cows which calved in winter and autumn had more persistent lactations, regardless of the number of lactation. The first-parity cows reached the peak yield sooner if they calved in summer, the older cows in summer and autumn.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic evaluation of the functional productive life in Slovak Simmental cattle
Eva Strapáková, Juraj Candrák, Peter Strapák and Anna Trakovická
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 79, 797-807 | 18 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-079

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Genetic evaluation of sires based on length of functional productive life of their daughters was carried out using a Weibull proportional hazard sire-maternal grandsire model. The data consisted of 214634 registered Slovak Simmental cows with censoring of 21.34%. Besides the random sire and maternal grandsire effects, the model included time dependent effects parity × stage of lactation interaction, within-herd standard deviations of milk production, herd × year × season interaction, change of herd size with respect to the previous year, and time independent effect age at first calving. Within-herd, the standard deviations of milk production had the most important influence on functional productive life. The highest risk of culling was found in cows with the lowest milk production class (uncompleted lactation). Risk of culling decreased with an increasing milk production class. Estimated heritability of functional productive life was 0.05 on the original scale. Breeding values of sires expressed as a risk ratio of their daughters were between −0.57 and 0.53.

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Original study (Abstract)
The effects of thermal manipulation during early and late embryogenesis on hatchability, hatching weight and body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Sezai Alkan, Taki Karsli, Kemal Karabag, Askin Galic and Murat Soner Balcioglu
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 78, 789-796 | 18 June 2013 doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-078

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This study aimed to determine the effects of thermal manipulation during early embryogenesis (EE) and late embryogenesis (LE) on hatching weight, body weight at 5 weeks of age, hatchability and embryonic mortality rate in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Incubation conditions from day 0 to day 17 were; 37.7 °C and 55 % relative humidity for control group. In the thermally treated eggs during early embryogenesis (EE6-EE8 days), incubation temperature was increased to 41 °C and relative humidity to 65 % for 3 hours (12.00-15.00) at 3 consecutive days. Also, in the late embryogenesis stage (LE12-LE14 days), incubation temperature was increased to 41 °C and relative humidity to 65 % 3 hours (12.00–15.00) at 3 consecutive days. At hatch in each trial, all chicks were wing-banded and individually weighted. Thermal manipulations had significant effect on hatching weight, and lowest hatching weights were found in late embryogenesis (LE) group in terms of male and female. In addition, thermal manipulations and gender had significant effect on body weight at 5 weeks of age and lowest body weights at 5 weeks of age were dedected in late embryogenesis (LE) group for both gender.

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Original study (Abstract)
Criteria of GenCall score to edit marker data and methods to handle missing markers have an influence on accuracy of genomic predictions
Vahid Edriss, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Mogens S. Lund and Guosheng Su
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 77, 778-788 | 18 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-077

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different strategies for handling low-quality or missing data on prediction accuracy for direct genomic values of protein yield, mastitis and fertility using a Bayesian variable model and a GBLUP model in the Danish Jersey population. The data contained 1,071 Jersey bulls that were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine 50K chip. After preliminary editing, 39,227 SNP remained in the dataset. Four methods to handle missing genotypes were: 1) BEAGLE: missing markers were imputed using Beagle 3.3 software, 2) COMMON: missing genotypes at a locus were replaced by the most common genotype at this locus observed in the marker data, 3) EX-ALLELE: missing marker genotypes at a locus were treated as an extra allele, and 4) POP-EXP: missing genotypes at a locus were replaced with population expectation at this locus. It was shown that among the methods used in this study, imputation with Beagle was the best approach to handle missing genotypes. Treating missing markers as a pseudo-allele, replacing missing markers with a population average or substituting the most common alleles each reduced the accuracy of genomic predictions. The results from this study suggest that missing genotypes should be imputed in order to improve genomic prediction. Editing the marker data with stringent threshold on GenCall (GC) scores and then imputing the discarded genotypes did not lead to higher accuracy. All marker genotypes with a GC score over 0.15 should be retained for genomic prediction.

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Original study (Abstract)
Comparison of different skeletal muscles from growing domestic pigs and wild boars
Dorothea Lösel, Anja Franke and Claudia Kalbe
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 76, 766-777 | 17 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-076

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The domestication process of pigs was associated with substantial morphological and physiological changes. The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate muscle microstructure and biochemical properties of four different skeletal muscles (M. longissimus, M. semitendinosus, M. psoas major, M. rhomboideus) in growing domestic pigs (n=5) and wild boars (n=4). The superiority of domestic pigs in body and muscle growth at three months of age was reflected by a 4-fold body weight and higher absolute weights of heart, liver and muscles. Relative muscle weights of M. psoas major and M. rhomboideus were reduced, whereas a 1.6-fold heavier M. semitendinosus was observed in domestic pigs compared with wild boars. In addition, the muscle cross-sectional area was greater in all muscles of domestic pigs resulting from about 3-fold fibre cross-sectional area, whereas total fibre number remained unchanged. As a consequence of intensified fibre hypertrophy, the fibre area per capillary is higher in all muscles of domestic pigs. Thus, the impaired supply with oxygen and nutrients may be one reason for the shift to the glycolytic muscle metabolism as indicated by a greater proportion of fast-twitch glycolytic fibres at the expense of fast-twitch oxidative fibres. This is also reflected by a higher ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. Our data suggest that the intensified muscle growth was realized by myofibre hypertrophy at unchanged myofibre number in growing domestic pigs. It seems that domestication-induced changes were most pronounced in M. semitendinosus as the exterior ham muscle which may be related to muscle specific selection for lean growth.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of varying supply of amino acids on nitrogen retention and growth performance of boars of different sire lines
Caroline Otten, Andreas Berk, Luise Hagemann, Simone Müller, Manfred Weber and Sven Dänicke
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 75, 751-765 | 17 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-075

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Three diets with varying amino acid levels were fed in two nitrogen balance studies and two fattening experiments in order to determine the nitrogen retention and growth performance of boars of different sire lines. A total of 12 boars, 6 crossbreed boars sired by Piétrain boars (Study 1) and 6 crossbreed boars sired by Duroc boars (Study 2) were used in the nitrogen balance studies. The feeding trials with 214 boars (109 crossbreeds of Piétrain sire line 1×hybrid sow [Pi 1] and 105 crossbreeds Piétrain sire line 2×hybrid sow [Pi 2]) in Experiment 1 and 212 boars (106 Piétrain sire line 3×hybrid sow [Pi 3] and 106 Duroc×hybrid sow [Du]) in Experiment 2 were carried out in three performance test centres in parallel to the nitrogen balance studies. Three diets with increasing content of amino acids were used; it was intended to use the same diets in nitrogen balance studies and the fattening experiments in order to compare the N retention and performance of boars during the growth period. The diets used in all experiments contained 13.4 MJ ME and 11.5 g lysine/kg (Diet 1), 13.2 g lysine/kg (Diet 2) and 14.9 g lysine/kg (Diet 3). The increase of the amino acid content of the diets seemed to have only a very minor impact on the nitrogen retention and on the growth performance of growing boars, whereas the location effect was found to be significant.

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Original study (Abstract)
Serum proteins profile in Comisana lambs during the first month of life
Giuseppe Piccione, Francesca Arfuso, Caterina Faggio, Stefania Casella, Alessandro Zumbo and Michele Panzera
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 74, 742-750 | 14 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-074

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The aim of the present study was to measure the serum total proteins and the serum protein fractions (albumin, α1-, α2-, β-, and γ- globulins) of ten newborn lambs (Comisana breed) during the first 30 days of life in order to obtain useful information for neonatal care. From each animal, blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture at the same hour (9.00) every 3 days for 30 days starting from birth (day 0). The concentrations of serum total proteins and albumin, α1-, α2-, β-, γ- globulins, and Albumin/Globulins (A/G) ratio were determined using an automated electrophoresis system. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni’s test, was used to determine significant differences between mean values of the studied parameters from the 1st to the 30th day of the experimental period. Data analysis of variance showed a statistical effect of days of life on total proteins, albumin, α1-globulins, β-globulins, γ-globulins and ratio A/G during the first 30 days of life (P<0.0001), while no statistical significant effect of days of life was observed on α2-globulins during the experimental period (P=0.27). The obtained results indicated that passive transfer status, determined from serum immunoglobulin concentration 24 hours after birth, is a significant source of variation in preweaning growth performance in dairy lambs. These finding make a contribution to the knowledge of physiological adaptation in lambs during the first 30 days of life and give useful information for the diagnosis and treatment of neonatal diseases.

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Original study (Abstract)
Affects of boron administration on serum Ca, Mg and P for peripartum cows
Mustafa Kabu, Fatih Mehmet Birdane, Turan Civelek and Cangir Uyarlar
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 73, 733-741 | 14 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-073

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of sodium borate on the concentrations of serum calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) in dairy cattle in the peripartum period. In the study, 14 healthy Holstein cows in the periparturient period (four weeks before and three weeks after calving) were divided into two equal groups according to oral treatments with sodium borate (30 g/day, group B), while some cows from the group were not treated (group C). Blood samples were obtained weekly from the prepartum 4 weeks until postpartum 3 weeks. At calving, changes were observed for the concentrations of the serum Ca, Mg and P in B and C groups. Ca (p>0.05) and Mg (p<0.001) concentrations were higher in group B than group C at calving. During the postpartum periods serum Ca and Mg concentrations increased (p<0.05) in group B compared to group C. Serum P concentrations were not affected by boron. The results suggest that sodium borate may be useful for sustaining metabolic balance and perhaps in preventing metabolic disorders such as milk fever and hypomagnesemia in dairy cattle during the periparturient period.

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Original study (Abstract)
The effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplements on the fatty acid profile and quality traits of eggs
Zenon Zduńczyk, Aleksandra Drażbo, Jan Jankowski, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Zofia Antoszkiewicz and Agnieszka Troszyńska
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 72, 719-732 | 14 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-072

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The present study investigated the effect of supplementing a diet containing 5% soybean oil, which provided 30 g/kg of PUFAs, with two levels of vitamin E (30 or 60 mg/kg, as-is basis)) in combination with two levels of selenium (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg, as-is basis) on hen performance, the fatty acid profile and antioxidant status of the yolk. A 12-week study was performed on 32 Lohman Brown hens with 8 birds in each group. Dietary treatments had no influence on average egg weight and the yolk to albumen ratio, whereas an increased selenium content of diets reduced the intensity of yolk color (P=0.019). Increased dietary levels of vitamin E had no effect on the fatty acid profile of yolk lipids. In the yolk with a higher selenium content, the concentration of n-3 PUFAs was significantly higher (C18:3n-3, p=0.001; C22:5n-3, p=0.004), whereas the amount of n-6 PUFAs was significantly lower (C18:2n-6, p=0.015; C20:4n-6, p=0.025). A higher vitamin E content of diets significantly (p=0.028) increased lipid-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACL), whereas increased dietary selenium levels had no effect on ACL. The noted differences in the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of eggs had no influence on their sensory attributes. In conclusion, increasing the inclusion levels of vitamin E and selenium in a diet with a high PUFA content has no effect on egg production and quality, but it increases the concentrations of both antioxidants and retinol in the yolk as well as ACL values and improves the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in the yolk.

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Original study (Abstract)
The effect of cattle breed, season and type of diet on nitrogen fractions and amino acid profile of raw milk
Ludmila Křížová, Oto Hanuš, Petr Roubal, Josef Kučera and Sylvie Hadrová
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 71, 709-718 | 14 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-071

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The aim of the study was to describe the differences in nitrogen fractions and deepen knowledge in amino acid (AA) profile of raw milk as affected by breed of cattle, season and type of feeding. The study was conducted from June 2005 to February 2007 on 64 bulk milk samples (BMS) collected from 8 herds consisting of Czech Fleckvieh (CF, 4 herds) and Holstein (H, 4 herds) breed. Half of herds of each breed were grazed (G) while the other half was not (N). Samples were collected twice in winter (W) and twice in summer (S). The effect of breed resulted in differences in milk yield that was lower in CF (5,385.50 kg) than in H (7,015.15 kg, P<0.05). Content of nitrogen fractions was higher in CF than in H (P<0.05). No effect of breed on AA profile of milk was observed except of concentration of Glu (P<0.05). The effect of season was demonstrated in decrease in concentrations of nitrogen fractions and Met during summer (S) in comparison to winter (W, P<0.05). The effect of the type of feeding resulted in lower milk yield (5,197.50 and 7,203.75 kg) and lower concentration of nitrogen fractions in grazed herds (G) compared to non-grazed herds (N, P<0.05), respectively. Furthermore, AA profile of milk differed significantly between G and N herds (P<0.05).

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Original study (Abstract)
Expression profiles of growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor I in cattle and yak tissues revealed by quantitative real-time PCR
Jie Pei, Xia Lang, Xian Guo, Pengjia Bao, Chunnian Liang, Min Chu, Ruilin Feng and Ping Yan
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 70, 700-708 | 14 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-070

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The goals of this study were to compare the mRNA expression profiles of GHR and IGF-I in various tissues of cattle and the semi-wild yak (Datong yak), and to find whether the mRNA levels of the two genes are correlated. The mRNA levels of GHR and IGF-I in heart, lung, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, muscle, mammary gland, and ovary of cattle and yak were investigated by use of quantitative real-time PCR. The experiments showed that the transcript levels of the two genes were significantly higher in liver (P<0.05) than in the other tissues for both species, and that IGF-1 levels varied more among tissues (P<0.01) than did GHR levels. The GHR transcript level in pancreas was higher in yak (P<0.05) than in cattle. There was no statistically significant difference in IGF-I transcript levels among all the tissues of both bovine groups. GHR and IGF-I transcript levels were positively correlated in mammary gland (P<0.01), lung (P<0.05), and muscle (P<0.05) in yak, negatively correlated in cattle heart (P<0.05), and not correlated in the other tissues. The results indicate that the two genes are regulated differently in various tissues under normal physiological conditions in these two bovine species.

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Short Communication (Abstract)
The effects of artificial selection on genetic variation of some immune genes in Gallus gallus
Tangjie Zhang, Nannan Zhao and Qian Liu
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 69, 691-699 | 14 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-069

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To research effects of the artificial selection of G. gallus on G. domesticus nucleotide diversity of immune genes, sequence polymorphisms of G. domesticus (23 genes), G. gallus (23 genes), Gallus lafayetti (17 genes), and G. sonneratii (17 genes) were obtained from GenBank. The data set included 819 polymorphisms. Immune gene polymorphism and selection efficiency in the data from those four species of Gallus were calculated. By calculating the θw (Watterson estimator) of each site, an average θw for each species, and the minimum number of re-combinations in each species and estimating the selection efficiency for G. domesticus and G. gallus, no significant nucleotide diversity nor genetic-diversity-θw-difference was found between G. domesticus and G. gallus. The results indicated that the patterns of genetic diversity in G. domesticus were strongly influenced by recombination and, because Tajima's D has a negative value, recombination was the main mechanism responsible for the immune gene evolution of G. gallus.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of using different number and type of records from different generations as reference population on the accuracy of genomic evaluation
Azade Boustan, Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi, Mohammad Moradi Shahrbabak and Mahdi Saatchi
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 68, 684-690 | 14 June 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-068

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One important question about genomic evaluation is how distance between generations of individuals in reference population and selection candidates, would affect the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding value of selection candidates. There were two schemes in the present study. In first scheme, for each individual a genome consisting 30 chromosomes each with 100 equally spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and in second scheme a genome consisting 3 chromosomes each with 1000 equally spaced SNPs was simulated. To generate enough linkage disequilibrium between loci, random mating for 50 generations was done in a finite population. In generation 51, population size was expanded to 250 individuals. This structure was continued until generation 55. Individuals in generation 55 were juvenile and did not have phenotypic records and were selection candidates. Heritability was assumed to be 0.3. Our results showed using information from more distant generations would decrease accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values of selection candidates but in scheme in which marker distance was 1 centimorgan, increasing generation number between reference population and selection candidates would decrease accuracy more than scheme in which marker distance was 0.1 centimorgan. According to our results using EBVs of reference population instead of phenotypic records would increase accuracy extremely.

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Original study (Abstract)
Realized response to short-term selection in common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) selected for seven-week body weight
David Zapletal, Eva Straková and Pavel Suchý
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 67, 675-683 | 25 May 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-067

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the directed positive selection of the common pheasant for higher 7-week body weight (BW) relative to their gender on the realized response to selection and adult (40-week) BW after 4 generations of selection. The founder population was not selected before for any traits. For the selection in generation 1 of the experiment, a total of 2080 pheasant chicks were used to establish a selection line (S line). In the same year, a total of 400 pheasant chicks were randomly selected as a control line (C line). Within S line, chicks from individual hatches were selected by sex, always based on live BW at the age of 49 days. The targeted selection was carried out for 4 generations. In all generations was found higher 7-week BW in males as compared to females (P<0.01). In generations 2, 3, and 4, BW of S line in both sexes was always higher in comparison with C line (P<0.01). The genetic improvement of 7-week BW was 15.0, 6.4, and 10.1 g in generation 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In the last generation 4, the increase in 7-week BW of S line as compared to C line was higher in females than in males (8.00 and 6.66 %, respectively). The realized heritability for 7-week BW was 0.19. Selection at the age of 7-week also caused an absolute increase in BW of adult pheasants at the age of 40-week.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic evaluations of the German Sport Horse: Population structure and use of data from foal and mare inspections and performance tests of mares
Kati Schöpke, Monika Wensch-Dorendorf and Hermann H. Swalve
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 66, 658-674 | 25 May 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-066

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The aim of the study was to characterise the population of the German Sport Horse – a sub-population of the German Riding Horse – in terms of population structure and genetic parameters. Data from 26,490 horses with information from foal inspections (N=17,881), broodmare inspections (N=12,069) and mare performance tests (N=2,756) from the years 1990-2006 were used for analysis. A total of 21 traits as scored in the three types of performance tests were analysed. Heritability estimates for traits from foal inspections ranged from 0.24±0.01 (conformation) to 0.50±0.01 (type). For broodmare inspections estimates ranged between 0.15±0.02 (forelegs) and 0.50±0.02 (head). Traits evaluated in the mare performance test show heritabilities between 0.18±0.02 (rideability) and 0.46±0.02 (trot). Genetic correlations within and across the three tests were all positive. An analysis of the structure of genetic relationships revealed that the population is influenced by different German Riding Horse sub-populations as well as by Thoroughbreds. The genetic connectedness within the population is of a complex structure and appeared to be sufficient for genetic analyses. Differences between the genetic parameters as estimated in this study for the German Sport Horse from those used in the national breeding value estimation system are predominantly insignificant. These results confirm that the German Sport Horse is both adequately represented in the national system and that the population itself is a representative part of the entire German Riding Horse population.

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Original study (Abstract)
Beta-casein A1/A2, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin polymorphisms in Turkish cattle breeds
Havva Dinc, Emel Ozkan, Evren Koban and Inci Togan
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 65, 650-657 | 25 May 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-065

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In this study, the genetic diversity of three milk protein genes namely beta-casein, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin was estimated in Turkish cattle breeds. Based on these genes, breeds in Turkey have been grouped as: 1) Eastern Anatolian Red, Anatolian Black, and Southern Anatolian Red and 2) Turkish Grey, Turkish Holstein and Holstein Candidate Bulls. B alleles of the three studied genes, which were reported to be positively related with cheese yield and quality, seemed to be low-intermediate for beta-casein and kappa-casein but relatively high for BLG in the first group of Turkish breeds compared to other breeds of the world. The kappa-casein E allele, which has a negative effect on cheese quality, is absent in Turkish cattle breeds, except for Holstein Candidate Bulls. Therefore, the results suggest that milk of Turkish native breeds is suitable for cheese making. Based on observations of the Turkish breeds, some suggestions were made regarding breeding practices in Turkey.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of the judge and definition of the trait for horse free jumping evaluation
Dorota Lewczuk
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 64, 638-649 | 25 May 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-064

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Presented research investigates the effect of judge on scores for horse free jumping skills, the agreement of judge’s scores and relations of these scores with measured jumping parameters received by video image analysis in order to recognise judging preferences and trait definition. The investigation was based on the group of 32 warmblood stallions, that were judged in free jumping by six experienced judges in five routinely evaluated jumping traits. Simultaneously horses were filmed during jumping and linear jumping parameters were measured. Additional jumping parameters were calculated to described the jumping style in the more detailed way. The influence of the effect of the judge was estimated by analysis of variance, the relationships between judges notes and jumping parameters by analysis of correlations. The effect of the judge was statistically significant for all traits. The correlations between individual judges notes were not equal. The notes for particular traits were in some cases more correlated with other traits like with notes for the same trait. Mean notes for evaluated traits were correlated above 0.6 between each other. Correlations between judges notes and measured jumping parameters were low and medium. Some jumping parameters were correlated with all traits, some parameters were not correlated at all. Received results showed that definition of the traits evaluated by judges is not the same for all of them. However, for all judges distance of landing, elevation of the body and lifting of front limbs were the more important parameters of the jump.

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Original study (Abstract)
Comparison of calves’ rearing parameters in two different housing systems: indoor versus outdoor hutches
Agata Wójcik, Teresa Nałęcz-Tarwacka and Marcin Gołębiewski
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 63, 628-637 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-063

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The main aim of the study was to compare rearing effect of calves kept outdoor in individual hutches (OG) and indoor in group pens (IG). During the experiments, the following measurements were carried out: body weight, daily gains, feed intake, morbidity and mortality. The study was conducted on 90 calves from 5th to 90th day of age; all calves were fed the same feed and according to the same schedule. Results revealed that during the first month, the calves from both groups achieved the same daily gains. However, older calves kept indoor were characterized by better daily gains, feed intake and as a result, body weight. The outdoor system has positive effect on morbidity, especially in case of pneumonia and diarrhea. During the experiment, only 2 calves were lost (mortality rate – 2.2 %).

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of teat order on piglet rearing results of native Złotnicka White breed
Ewa Skrzypczak, Karolina Szulc, Marek Babicz and Janusz T. Buczyński
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 62, 617-627 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-062

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Observations of animal behaviour during the first three weeks of life revealed an existence of a specific correlation between the use of individual teats by suckling piglets and successive pairs of teats. Therefore, it appeared justified to undertake experiments with the aim to study relationships between the use of teats by individual piglets and the results of their rearing focusing, in particular, on small-sized, domestic breeds. The experimental animal material comprised 20 litters which derived from 20 randomly selected sows of native swine breed. The scope of the performed observations and analyses of parameters included: frequency of approaching the preferred teats, number and body weight of piglets, body weight gains as well as mortality of piglets throughout the rearing period. It was found that teat location exerted influence on the mass, body weight gains and deaths of the experimental piglets. The performed observations demonstrated that the teats of the 2nd and 3rd pairs were those which were most frequently used by piglets, whereas the last teats situated close to the tail were used less frequently, mainly by marginal animals. The best rearing results were recorded for the piglets which used teats situated in the front part of the sow body. In addition, it was also found that piglets mortality were the greatest when the animals suckled from teats situated at the rear part of the sow body. The performed analysis of milk production also confirmed that it was highest from teats situated in the front part of the sow body.

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Original study (Abstract)
Supplementation of vitamins, probioitics and proteins on oxidative stress, enzymes and hormones in post-moult male broiler breeders
Rifat Ullah Khan, Zia Rahman, Ijaz Javed and Faqir Muhammad
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 61, 607-616 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-061

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This study was planned to investigate the comparative effect of vitamin E and C, probiotics, protein level and combination of these treatments on body weight, serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol and some minerals in Zn-induced male broiler breeders. A total of 180 Hubbard male broiler breeders (65 weeks of age) were induced to moult. After moulting, the birds were randomly distributed into six groups. One group was fed vitamin E (100 IU/kg feed), second group was fed vitamin C (500 IU/kg feed), third group was fed probiotics (50 mg/L), fourth group was fed lower protein level (14% CP) and the fifth group was fed the combination of the mentioned treatments. The sixth group served as control. The results revealed that serum TAC significantly increased (P<0.05) while TOS and OSI decreased (P<0.05) in the vitamin E fed group compared to the other treated groups. The analyses of the samples indicated that AST, ALT decreased significantly in vitamin E supplemented group while T3 and T4 increased significantly as a result of this treatment. Cortisol concentration decreased significantly in vitamin E fed group. Serum Mg which increased significantly in vitamin E supplemented group. The results indicated that physiological biochemistry disrupted in male breeders as a consequence of moulting could be compensated by feeding vitamin E.

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Original study (Abstract)
Evaluation of the effect of genetically modified Roundup Ready soya bean and MON 810 maize in the diet of Japanese quail on chosen aspects of their productivity and retention of transgenic DNA in tissues
Agnieszka Korwin-Kossakowska, Katarzyna Sartowska, Anna Linkiewicz, Grzegorz Tomczyk, Beata Prusak and Grażyna Sender
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 60, 597-606 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-060

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The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of genetically modified ingredients (soya bean meal and maize grain) used in poultry diets on birds’ performance and also accumulation of the transgenic DNA in eggs, breast muscle and internal organs. In the present experiment four generations of Japanese quails which were subject to three different diets: two containing genetically modified organisms (soya and maize) and one control GMO-free, were analysed. Birds’ performance traits were monitored along the trial. A screening molecular method (PCR amplification) was used to detect CaMV 35S promoter and nos terminator in the collected samples. Results showed no presence of modified DNA in analysed products. According to the obtained results, it was concluded that there was no negative effect of the use of GM soya bean meal or maize grain found with regards to final product safety for consumers or to birds’ productivity.

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Brief report (Abstract)
Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphism on the intramuscular fat content in cattle examined by x-ray computed tomography and Soxhlet methods
István Anton, Attila Zsolnai, István Holló, Imre Repa and Gabriella Holló
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 59, 593-596 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-059

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Intramuscular fat content or marbling represents a valuable beef quality trait and is an important determinant of palatability due to its contribution to juiciness and flavour. Meat which has little marbling may be dry and flavourless. Higher levels of intramuscular fat have been associated with increased tenderness, juiciness and flavour of beef (Thompson 2004). Whereas this feature is highly appreciated in some markets (by example Australia, China, Korea, Japan) breeders usually try to increase intramuscular fat deposition in cattle by nutrition. However, genetic factors have been shown to affect marbling in cattle. Thyroglobulin (TG) is a glycoproteic hormone synthesised in the thyroid gland and is the precursor of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormones which influence lipid metabolism. T3 and T4 hormones have been associated with marbling in Wagyu cattle (Mears et al. 2001). The effect of a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of TG gene has been concluded to affect intramuscular fat content in cattle (Barendse 1999). High probability of positive association between the T allele of bovine TG gene and marbling was observed by Wood et al. (2006). Thyroglobulin mainly affects the fat content of longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) (Thaller et al. 2003). X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been utilised in cattle breeding mainly for the estimation of entire carcass composition based on the CT measured tissue composition of three-ribs-joint (Holló et al. 2007). The non-invasive CT technique offers the possibility to analyse the whole muscle composition and to determine detailed marbling characteristics of muscles such as area, volume and distribution. The intramuscular fat level measured by CT is generally lower compared to values of the chemical percentage method, but the correlation between mentioned methods is significant (Holló et al. 2012).

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Brief report (Abstract)
A novel SNP of lysozyme gene and its association with mastitis trait in Chinese Holstein
Renjin Chen, Zhenzhen Wang, Zhangping Yang, Yongjiang Mao, Dejun Ji, Xiaorong Zhu and An Ed Hamza
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 58, 589-592 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-058

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Mastitis is the most frequent and important disease in the dairy industry worldwide, which leads to the great economic losses to the dairy industry (Nashet al. 2003). Direct selection for resistance to clinical mastitis may be very difficult, and indirect selection has been practiced widely, the recommended measure is to record herd milk somatic cell scores (SCS) based on the positive correlation between clinical mastitis and milk SCS (Rupp et al. 1999). Lysozyme is a ubiquitous bacteriolytic enzyme present in external secretions and in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. The lysozyme level was as an index of macrophage functional status (Di Luzio, 1979). Seyfert et al. (1996) suggested the Lyz gene was suggested as a candidate gene for improvement of mastitis resistance. The activity of lysozyme may be the result of single nucleotide change. The Lyz gene is located on autosome 5, containing 4 exon and 3 intron. The purposes of this study were to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the encoding region of Lyz gene, and evaluate the possible association of SNPs with SCS in Chinese Holstein populations.

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Original study (Abstract)
Occurrence of ketone bodies in the urine of cows during the first three months after calving and their association with milk yield
Ewa Januś and Danuta Borkowska
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 57, 581-588 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-057

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The aim of the study was to assess the effect of lactation number, month after calving, body condition at calving, milk yield and feeding season on the frequency and intensity of occurrence of ketone bodies in the urine during the first trimester after calving of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows cows with average annual milk yield of about 7,000 kg. It was also evaluated how the presence of ketone bodies in the urine of cows was associated with their milk production and the course of lactation. 479 urine samples were collected from the cows. The samples were tested using KRULAB test strips. The influence of the presence of ketone bodies on milk yield in 150 lactations and in 1,797 milk samples was also evaluated. It was found that 36.2 % of urine samples contained ketone bodies that could indicate various forms of ketosis. The frequency and intensity of the occurrence of ketone bodies in the urine was significantly influenced by the cows' body condition at calving, milk yield during standard lactation, the day the urine samples were collected and feeding season. The presence of ketones in the urine had little effect on milk yield in standard and complete lactations. Cows whose urine contained ketone bodies had significantly higher daily milk yield up to the sixth month of lactation. This could indicate that cows with high production potential are more susceptible to ketosis. The occurrence of ketones in the urine had a negative effect on the lactation curves of the cows tested.

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Original study (Abstract)
The influence of temperament on cortisol concentration and metabolic profile in Tsigai lambs
Ferenc Pajor, Alfréd Kovács, János Tőzsér and Péter Póti
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 56, 573-580 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-056

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The aim of present study was to investigate the relationships between temperament score and blood cortisol concentration, as well as energy metabolic parameters (glucose, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid and cholesterol) in Tsigai lambs during fattening. The temperament of lambs was assessed (scored) by the temperament score test (behaviour of animals was evaluated in a 5-score system (1: calm, 5: nervous) while spending 30 s on the scale during weighing). Based on temperament scoring at beginning of fattening, 7-6-7 lambs were selected by temperament categories as calm (1 score 1), intermediate (score 3), and nervous lambs (scores 4 and 5). At this time, our study did not show any correlation between temperament score, blood cortisol concentration and the metabolic profile. However, at the end of fattening, the calmer lambs had lower cortisol concentrations (2.60 nmol/l) compared to the more nervous lambs (8.07 nmol/l). The calm lambs had lower (P<0.05) non-esterised fatty acid (0.37 mmol/l), cholesterol (1.44 mmol/l) and glucose (3.29 mmol/l) and higher triglyceride (0.98 mmol/l) concentrations and daily weight gain (447.45 g/day), compared to the excitable ones (0.81, 1.86, 4.14, 0.57 mmol/l and 366.84 g/day). These data proves that increased temperament score - through the higher cortisol concentration - has a great effect on the lambs’ energy metabolic profile, which influences the fattening performance.

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Original study (Abstract)
(Co)variance components and genetic parameters for growth rate and Kleiber ratio in fat-tailed Mehraban sheep
Farhad Ghafouri-Kesbi
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 55, 564-572 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-055

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The aim of the present study was to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADGa), weaning to 6-month (ADGb), weaning to 9-month (ADGc), 6-month to 9-month (ADGd) and corresponding Kleiber ratios (KRa, KRb, KRc and KRd) in Mehraban sheep. A derivative-free algorithm combined with a series of six univariate linear animal models was used to estimate phenotypic variance and its direct, maternal, and residual components. In addition, bivariate analyses were done to estimate (co)variance components between traits. Estimates of direct heritability (h2) were 0.10, 0.11, 0.16, 0.09, 0.13, 0.13, 0.15 and 0.08 for ADGa, ADGb, ADGc, ADGd, KRa, KRb, KRc and KRd, respectively, indicating that in Mehraban sheep genes contribute very little to the variance of the growth rate and Kleiber ratio. Estimates of maternal heritability (m2) were 0.10, 0.08 and 0.05 for ADGa, KRa and KRb, respectively. Direct additive genetic correlations ranged from -0.32 (KRa-KRd) to 0.99 (ADGb-KRb) and phenotypic correlations ranged from -0.53 (ADGa-ADGd) to 0.99 (ADGa-KRa). Estimates of direct heritability and genetic correlations show that genetic improvement in efficiency of feed utilization through selection programs is possible, though it would generate a relatively slow genetic progress.

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Original study (Abstract)
Dry period length in Montbéliarde cows and its association with selected production and functional characteristics
Ewa Januś and Danuta Borkowska
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 54, 555-563 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-054

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The study evaluated the effects of selected factors (dry period number, milk yield in standard lactation and length of full lactation) on the length of dry periods. The effect of dry period length on milk yield and composition, the frequency of milk samples with different somatic cell counts (SCC) and the course of lactation were also analysed. The study included 491 cycles (dry period and lactation) and 4 998 results of test-day milking conducted in a herd of 230 Montbéliarde cows. The cows were kept in a free-stall barn and fed total mixed rations (TMR). The average length of the dry period was found to be 85 days. The first dry period was 34-45 days longer than subsequent ones, which may have been due to the cows becoming acclimated after having been brought to the farm as in calf heifers. Increasing milk yield in standard lactation was accompanied by significantly shorter dry periods. The most beneficial dry periods in terms of milk yield were those lasting 22-41 days. The lowest yield was noted in lactations preceded by a dry period reduced to 0-21 days. However, this milk contained the most fat, protein and dry matter and the SCC did not exceed 400 000 cells/ml in 73.3 % of cases. The decrease in daily milk yield from its peak in the 2nd month to the 10th month after calving was smallest in cows with dry periods of 57-84 days, which may suggest that lactations in these cows were the most persistent.

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Original study (Abstract)
Pedigree analysis in White Shorthaired goat: First results
Marta Oravcová
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 53, 547-554 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-053

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Pedigree records of 1,682 animals of White Shorthaired goat in Slovakia were investigated. The reference population was defined as the animals born from 2008 to 2011 with at least one ancestor known in the second ancestral generation (670 animals kept in eight flocks). The numbers of founders, ancestors, effective founders, effective ancestors and founder genome equivalents were assessed 286, 256, 73, 45 and 32, respectively. Fifteen ancestors were needed to explain 50 % of genetic variability. Marginal contributions of ten most influential ancestors varied between 5.45 % and 2.47 % and accounted for 39.8 % of genetic variability. The mean values of inbreeding and coancestry were 0.69 % and 1.55 %. The effective population size was assessed 182 and 142 individuals, depending whether it was calculated from the individual increase in inbreeding or the individual increase in coancestry. The number of maximum generations traced, the number of fully traced generations and the number of equivalent complete generations traced were 5.62, 1.97 and 3.04, respectively. The first, second and third ancestral generation was 100 %, 83 % and 71 % complete. The completeness decreased to as low as 35 % and 11 % in the fourth and fifth generation. To be able to keep genetic links across generations in touch, the amount of pedigree information needs to be increased. This is a serious requirement for appropriate monitoring and management of genetic relations within the population.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic analysis of values, trends and relations between conformation and milk traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows
Wojciech Kruszyński, Edward Pawlina and Małgorzata Szewczuk
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 52, 536-546 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-052

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In the work presented an analysis was performed of the genetic values of conformation traits in cows and their relations with the genetic value of dairy traits, basing on dairy performance (milk, fat and protein yield) and conformation data, obtained for Polish Holstein-Friesian cows of the Black-and-White variety, born between year 2001 and 2004, and maintained in 21 herds in the region of Wielkopolska (central Poland). The genetic values for the data analysed were estimated using the BLUP method and a mixed model. For the traits analysed a genetic trend was estimated as well as genetic correlations between the dairy and conformation traits. The population analysed was divided depending on year of birth and production level. The results obtained show a systematic increase in the traits analysed (positive genetic trends), both for the dairy and for conformation traits (with the exception of temperament). The highest genetic correlations between dairy and conformation traits were obtained for the udder, temperament and dairy type, while the lowest for height at sacrum and calibre. The analysis of the genetic value of conformation traits in cows of different dairy production genetic values indicated that the highest results were obtained for the group of animals with the highest genetic dairy production value. In turn, the analysis of the genetic value of traits of cows born in different years did not show statistically significant differences, with the exception of height in the youngest group.

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Original study (Abstract)
The effect of egg powder inclusion in the pre-starter diet on immune response of male broiler chicken
Ladan Esmailzadeh, Mahmud Shivazad, Ali Asghar Sadeghi and Mohamadamir Karimi-Torshizi
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 51, 527-535 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-051

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A completely randomized design was performed to evaluate the effect of inclusion of egg powder in the pre-started diet (1-7 day age) on the immune response of male broiler chickens. Experimental pre-starter diets formulated to have 0, 20, 40 or 60 g/kg egg powder. The relative weight of lymphoid organs (spleen and bursa) reduced, in days 7 and 42 of age, by graded inclusion of egg powder in the pre-starter period (P≤0.05). The highest antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in days 7 and 42 of age was for chickens fed diet containing 60 g/kg egg powder in the pre-starter diet (P≤0.05). At day 7 of age, birds fed diet containing egg powder had higher antibody titer against Infectious bursal disease virus (IB) as compared with the control group (P≤0.05), but at day 42 of age, there was no significant difference between treatments (P>0.05). There was no difference (P>0.05) among treatments for titer against sheep red blood cells and immune response against dinitrochlorobenzene. It was concluded that inclusion of egg powder to the pre-starter diet could significantly enhance the immune response of the male broiler chickens.

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Original study (Abstract)
Management of genetic diversity using gene dropping method based on pedigree information
Majid Khaldari, Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi, Peer Berg, Abbas Pakdel and Hasan Mehrabani Yeganeh
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 50, 518-526 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-050

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Preservation of genetic diversity in populations is an important task to ensure a possible longterm response to selection in animal breeding. The purpose of this study was to consider how pedigree analysis and gene dropping method could be used for management plans in order to maintain genetic variation in a population under selection of Japanese quail. Therefore, the distributions of alleles frequencies originated from founders were estimated on an actual pedigree using gene dropping simulation software. Then, genetic contribution of founders to the current population, components such as the F-statistics and effective population size were estimated. The results show that from 156 founders there are only 64 of them (22 males and 42 females) in the last generation. The average genetic contribution of a founder male and female contributing to the last generation were 1.87 and 1.40 %, respectively. A total of 87 and 95 % of the genome in the last generation were constituted by 34 and 42 founders, respectively. The effective population size decreased as inbreeding increases. The allele frequency averaged over replicates agreed with the genetic contribution. Some useful information regarding the management of genetic diversity such as the probability of allele extinction, the probability of alleles surviving at a critically low frequency and risk of future allele extinction were derived by using these distributions. Results show that pedigree analysis and gene dropping are valuable tools in optimizing decisions to preserve genetic variability.

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Original study (Abstract)
The effect of the design of housing systems for calves on the microclimatic conditions of the rearing environment
Dana Němečková, Ivana Knížková, Petr Kunc and Luděk Stádník
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 49, 509-517 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-049

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The objective of this study was to compare microclimatic conditions in three different housing systems designed for calf rearing – individual wooden hutches, individual tarpaulin hutches and individual pens under shelter – and to evaluate the thermal comfort of calves reared in these systems. Air temperature, relative air humidity and the rectal temperature of calves (n=324) were measured in the hutches and pens during three consecutive years. The hypothesis that the climatic conditions of different housing system designs used in calf rearing affect the thermal comfort of calves was confirmed, as the design of the individual housing systems affected microclimatic conditions and subsequently the rectal temperature of the housed calves as well. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05) were found between the shelter and individual outdoor calf hutches in relation to the measured parameters. In the summer, the shelter showed a significantly (P<0.05) lower air temperature and significantly higher level of both relative air humidity and calf rectal temperature. These significantly higher rectal temperatures in both summer and in transitional periods (from March to June and from September to December) can be explained by microclimatic conditions and specifically by the combination of air temperature and the highest relative humidity that caused less comfortable microclimatic conditions for calves. The high relative humidity is probably caused by inadequate ventilation under the shelter. Therefore, new technology of calf housing under shelter could be recommended as suitable housing only if adequate ventilation is provided.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic analysis of milk yield, fat and protein content in Holstein dairy cows in Iran: Legendre polynomials random regression model applied
Rohullah Abdullahpour, Mohammad Moradi Shahrbabak, Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi and Raphael Mrode
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 48, 497-508 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-048

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Data including 219,105 test day records of 22,569 first parity Holstein cows in 56 herds were analysed for milk yield, fat content and protein content. Legendre polynomials were used in a random regression model to explain traits curves, additive genetic and permanent environmental effects along days in milk (DIM). Legendre polynomials of order 3 were used to describe additive genetic effects on the traits. For permanent environmental effects, for milk the order of 6 and for fat and protein content the order of 4 were used. Heterogeneity of residual variance was considered. Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology was used to estimate the required parameters. Variations in genetic, permanent environment and residual effects and heritability changes along DIM were computed and illustrated. Daily heritability estimates averaged as 0.22, 0.14 and 0.23 for milk, fat and protein contents, respectively. Minimum correlations between DIM for additive genetic effects were as 0.49, −0.01 and 0.34 for milk, fat and protein contents. There were higher genetic correlations between test day milk yield and protein content compared to fat content. The genetic trend of milk yield has increased over the years from 1971 to 2005, while the genetic trend for fat and protein content declined.

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Original study (Abstract)
Estimation of genetic parameters and trends for milk fat and protein percentages in Iranian Holsteins using random regression test day model
Hassan Khanzadeh, Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh and Mohammad Naserani
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 47, 487-496 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-047

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The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters and trends for fat and protein percentages of milk in Iranian Holsteins calving between 2001 and 2010 using the random regression test day model. Data set included 505,160 test day records that were collected by the Animal Breeding Centre of Iran. The Legendre polynomial functions of orders (5, 5) and (5, 6) were chosen to fit the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects of fat and protein percentages, respectively. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.053 to 0.232 and 0.111 to 0.259 for fat and protein percentages, respectively. The averages of estimated breeding values were −8.61 and −3.15 and annual genetic trends were −0.74 kg and −0.64 kg for fat and protein percentages, respectively. Negative genetic trends for fat and protein percentages are likely the result of major emphasis on milk yield in the breeding plan of Iranian Holsteins.

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Original study (Abstract)
The influence of glucagon on the concentration of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in the liver and kidney of mice
Jolanta Klusek, Bożena Witek, Justyna Klusek, Elżbieta Tomasik, Agnieszka Kamińska and Adam Kołątaj
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 46, 480-486 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-046

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The experiment was performed on sexually mature male Swiss mice to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of glucagon administered over a period of 4 or 8 days on the concentration of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in liver and kidneys of mice selected for fast rate of body weight gain and unselected ones, kept on a high-protein and low-protein diet. On the basis of the results obtained it was concluded that the selection and the diet, as well as glucagon injections, were lowering the content of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in the examined organs of mice, in many cases confirmed in a statistically significant way.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of supplementation with vegetable oil on performance of lactating Awassi ewes, growth of their lambs, and on fatty acid profile of milk and blood of lambs
Hosam Titi and Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 45, 467-479 | 27 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-045

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The present study investigated the effects of supplementing soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on the performance of early lactating Awassi ewes, growth of their sucking lambs, and on the concentration of total fatty acids in milk and blood of suckling lambs. One hundred and twenty five ewes were randomly assigned into 5 equalsized treatment groups involved; a control total mixed diet (TMR) without added oil, and 4 diets supplemented with 3% SBO, 5% SBO, 3% SFO, or 5% SFO. Milk yield increased (P<0.05) in ewes fed 3% SBO and 5% SFO compared to control ewes. Milk protein content increased (P<0.05) in 3% SBO, 3% SFO and 5% SFO groups than the control and 5% SBO groups, whereas crude protein yield increased ((P<0.05) in 3% and 5% SFO groups than the control group. Plasma content of cholesterol in lamb were increased (P<0.05), while that of triglycerides was reduced (P<0.05). Supplementation with both oils reduced (P<0.05) short and medium chain fatty acids in milk fat but increased (P<0.05) C16:0, C17:1 and C18:0 content in milk fat. Supplementation also increased (P<0.05) the cis-9 trans-11 CLA content in milk fat. However, SFO produced higher (P<0.05) values than SBO. Both oils led to more (P<0.05) total CLA in the plasma of suckling lambs. In conclusion, supplementing a moderate dose of SBO or SFO to the diets increased CLA concentration in milk fat. Nevertheless, supplementation with SFO was more effective than SBO in increasing CLA concentration in milk fat and improving milk quality from the human health standpoint.

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Original study (Abstract)
Estimation of genetic parameters for daily milk yields of primiparous Iranian Holstein cows
Khabat Kheirabadi, Sadegh Alijani, Ludmila Zavadilová, Seyed Abbas Rafat and Gholamali Moghaddam
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 44, 455-466 | 27 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-044

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Applying a multiple trait random regression (MT-RR) in national level and for whole test day records of a country is a great advance in animal breeding context. Having reliable (co)variance components is a critical step in applying multiple traits genetic evaluation especially in developing countries. Genetic parameters of milk, fat and protein yields were estimated for Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Data included 276,692 test day (TD) production traits records collected of 30,705 primiparous cows belonging to 619 sires. An animal multi-trait random regression model was employed in the analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. The model included herd-test-date, age-season of calving (by applying a fixed regression for each subclass of this effect) and year of calving as fixed effects and random regression (RR) coefficients for additive genetic (AG) and permanent environmental (PE) effects. Obtained results showed that daily heritabilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 for milk, from 0.05 to 0.08 for fat and from 0.08 to 0.18 for protein yield. Estimated heritability for 305-d milk, fat and protein yields were 0.25, 0.20 and 0.25, respectively. Correlations between individual test day records within traits were high for adjacent tests (nearly 1) and decreased as the interval between tests increased. Correlations between yields of milk, fat and protein on a given test day are also high and greater during late lactation than during early or mid-lactation. Genetic correlations between 305-d yield traits ranged from 0.75 to 0.92. The largest genetic correlation, as well as permanent environmental correlation, was observed between milk and protein yield.

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Original study (Abstract)
Clinical chemistry of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) yearling hinds reared on grass or papillonaceous pasture paddocks in Hungary
András Szabó, János Nagy, Julianna Bokor, Hedvig Fébel, Dávid Mezőszentgyörgyi and Péter Horn
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 43, 443-454 | 27 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-043

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Yearling red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds of identical initial bodyweight (BW) were reared on a monocotyledonous grass (group 1) or on a papillonaceous plant pasture (group 2) for 212 days. At the end of the experiment (when deer were shot) blood was taken from 10 animals from each group for serum biochemical analysis. Hinds of group 2 provided higher final BW (90±3.5 vs. 101±6.6 kg) and higher daily BW gain (105.7±10.7 vs. 153.8±26.8 g/day). Within serum nitrogenous compounds group 2 provided higher total protein concentrations, while from the lipids only serum triglyceride levels were higher in this group. Serum potassium was in both groups higher than the reference range with a superposed slight hyperkalemia in group 2. Higher lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were found in group 2, and lower aspartate aminotransferase activity values. Inorganic phosphate concentration showed a significant difference (group 1 providing higher values). Results refer to an expressed venison growth as a result of the rich dietary protein supply of group 2. Findings were evaluated as well with discriminant factor analysis, outlining the relative importance of the single blood biochemical parameters in shaping the inter-group differences.

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Original study (Abstract)
Association between body and udder morphological traits and dairy performance in Spanish Assaf sheep
M. Ángeles Pérez-Cabal, Emilio Legaz, Isabel Cervantes, Luis Fernando de la Fuente, Raúl Martínez, Félix Goyache and Juan Pablo Gutiérrez
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 42, 430-442 | 27 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-042

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The relationship between 17 body and 8 udder measurements and phenotypic dairy performance were studied using information from 280 Spanish Assaf ewes from 2 to 4 years old belonging to 18 flocks. The influence of the environmental area on the dairy traits was assessed by fitting a fixed model including the flock effect and the age effect. A factor analysis was also carried out to determine the lowest number of independent factors that account for most of the variation in the traits. The flock was statistically significant for performance trait and predicted breeding value (PBV) while the age was only significant in 150 days standardized milk yield (MY150) and daily milk yield (DMY). In general, not much association was found between morphological and dairy performance traits. Few body traits showed significant phenotypic correlations; mainly those related to height, diameters, ears and tail, with the latter being the most correlated but unfavourable for DMY and PBV. Among udder conformation, udder depth and length were the most correlated traits to milk production, while deep udders and short teats were related to lower somatic cell counts. The different traits were classified for analyses into six factors relating mainly to: live weight; production and udder traits; cheese production; stature; teats and udder health; and udder dimensions. Trade of animals was concluded to be unreasonably based on morphological or even on performance traits. The participation of breeders in an appropriate breeding scheme based on accurate genetic evaluations is encouraged.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic and phenotypic parameters for productive traits in the first three lactations of Khuzestan buffaloes in Iran
Mostafa Madad, Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh and Abdol Ahad Shadparvar
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 41, 423-429 | 22 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-041

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The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk and fat yields in Khuzestan buffaloes of Iran. A total of 5,258 production records of the first three lactations of the Khuzestan buffaloes obtained from the Animal Breeding Centre of Iran between 1993 and 2009 were used for the analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated by the multivariate restricted maximum-likelihood (REML) procedure in the Wombat program. The averages of milk and fat production were 2,220.0 kg and 137.6 kg for first lactation; 2,236.8 kg and 137.9 kg for second lactation; and 2,303.6 kg and 143.3 kg for third lactation, respectively. Heritability estimates for milk and fat yields were 0.06 and 0.24 for the first; 0.06 and 0.28 for the second and 0.26 and 0.47 for the third lactation, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between first and second, first and third, and second and third lactations were 0.77, 0.67 and 0.79 for milk and −0.61, −0.21 and −0.25 for fat yields. These estimates for milk yield are consistent with previous estimates obtained from animal models. Milk production of different lactations is essentially the same trait genetically and combining all lactation records as a single trait is appropriate. On the other hand, negative genetic correlations for fat yield in different lactations indicated that fat yields in all lactations were determined by different genes.

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Original study (Abstract)
Intermittent feeding program and addition of Bacillus subtilis based probiotics to the diet of growing broiler chickens: Influence on growth, hepatic enzymes and serum lipid metabolites profile
Hamid Reza Aliakbarpour, Mohammad Chamani, Godrat Rahimi, Ali Asghar Sadeghi and Durdi Qujeq
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 40, 410-422 | 22 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-040

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This study was conducted to examine the effects of Intermittent feeding program (IFP) and Bacillus subtilis based probiotic (BSP) addition in diet on liver malic enzyme and Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, lipid metabolism and performance in broiler chickens. Five hundred four one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4). Groups T1 (control diet) and T3 (Bacillus subtilis based probiotic diet) were fed ad libitum, whereas, groups T2 (control diet) and T4 (Bacillus subtilis based probiotic diet) served as IFP from day 8 to the end of experiment. The data on initial body weight, weekly feed consumption, body weight gain were recorded up to six week of age. Carcass composition, blood parameters and hepatic enzyme activity were measured at the end of experiment. Although body weight gain was not significantly different among any of the treatments, but the birds raised under IFP consumed significantly (P<0.05) lower feed (207 g) and utilized their feed more efficiently (1.78) than those of control group, fed ad libitum (1.84). Carcass weight as a percentage of live weight was not affected by probiotic supplementation on the diet, but IFP significantly reduced (P<0.05) broiler carcass weight. However, the liver malic and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was not significantly different between IFP and BSP groups. All serum lipid metabolites concentration decreased (P<0.05) with probiotic treatment. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilisprobiotic may influence the pathway of fat metabolism through promotion and/or suppression on serum lipid metabolites.

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Original study (Abstract)
Voluntary feed intake and growth performance of boars and barrows in dependence on lysine-to-energy ratio
Caroline Otten, Andreas Berk and Sven Dänicke
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 39, 399-409 | 22 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-039

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Boars (entire male pigs) consume less feed than barrows (castrated male pigs) under practical ad libitum feeding conditions, but the knowledge about possible reasons is only limited. Since the lysine and energy contents of the diet are known to be important determinants of voluntary feed intake, it was of interest if sex specific responses to selected dietary lysine-toenergy ratios could explain the differences in feed intake between boars and barrows. A total of 95 pigs (48 boars and 47 barrows) was used for this investigation. Four diets were fed with two different precaecally digestible lysine-to-metabolised energy (ME) ratios, 0.93 and 0.86 (g/MJ) for grower diets and 0.71 and 0.66 (g/MJ) for finisher diets. The pigs were kept individually and divided into four feeding groups for each sex. A 2×2×2 factorial design with the factors sex (boars vs. barrows), lysine level and energy level was employed. The sex effect was dominant and influenced all variables (P<0.001). Superior growth potential with a concomitant lower feed intake was confirmed for boars compared to barrows. Energy and lysine levels of the diets exerted only minor effects on the measured variables, such as the intake (P<0.05) and conversion rate (P<0.01) of lysine and energy. It was concluded that boars grew faster than barrows even though they consumed less feed. Boars and barrows responded to different lysine and metabolised energy levels of the diets in a similar manner suggesting the marked and dominating effect of sex.

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Original study (Abstract)
Investigating a complex genotype-phenotype map for development of methods to predict genetic values based on genome-wide marker data – a simulation study for the livestock perspective
Nina Melzer, Dörte Wittenburg and Dirk Repsilber
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 38, 380-398 | 22 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-038

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Phenotypic variation can partly be explained by genetic variation, such as variation in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. Genomic selection methods seek to predict genetic values (breeding values) based on SNP genotypes. To develop and to optimize these methods, simulated data are often used, which follow a rather simple genotype-phenotype map. Is the conventional approach for data simulation in this field an appropriate basis to optimize such methods in view of experimental data? Here, we present an alternative approach, striving to simulate more realistic data based on a genotype-phenotype map which includes a simulated metabolome level. This level was used to simulate genetic values, implicitly including additive and non-additive genetic effects, whereas in a conventional approach additive and dominance effects were explicitly simulated and assembled to genetic values. For both simulation approaches, different scenarios regarding numbers of QTLs and SNPs were analyzed using fastBayesB as prediction method. We observed that our alternative map showed a smaller prediction precisions (at least 3.75%) compared to the conventional approach in all investigated scenarios. The observed degree of linearity is at least 94.12% of the conventional approach or less. Additionally, we present results for different simulated data and experimental data to allow a comparison on a purely conceptual level. Concluding, simulating a more complex genotype-phenotype map including a molecular level allows to study the processing of variation from the genetic to the phenotype level in more detail and may prepare the ground for modern methods of genomic selection.

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Original study (Abstract)
Analyses of conformational performance differentiation among functional breeding goals in the Menorca horse breed
Marina Solé, Maria Dolores Gómez, Antonio Molina, Francisco Peña and Mercedes Valera
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 37, 367-379 | 22 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-037

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The endangered Menorca horse from the Balearic Islands (Spain) is selected for its economically viable traits, such as conformation and dressage performance, while maintaining the maximum possible genetic variability. The aim of this work was to describe the morphology of the Menorca horse and to analyse the conformational variation among the different performance aptitudes of the males (classical dressage, Menorca dressage and leisure) using 47 body measurements and 10 body indices. The data consists of 147 females and 200 males. The Menorca horse can be characterised as an animal of quadrangular format, slim figure with thin and long limbs, with the greatest values for height and length found in the males. The Duncan and principal component analysis with non-linear iterative partial least-squares algorithm discriminates the Menorca dressage group mainly by its differential hind limb angulations. Both the classical and Menorca dressage groups showed well-balanced body proportions for sport performance.

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Short communication (Abstract)
Relationship between urinary zearalenone concentration and embryo production in superovulated cattle
Mitsuhiro Takagi, Toshiya Hirai, Satoshi Shiga, Seiichi Uno, Emiko Kokushi, Takeshige Otoi, Eisaburo Deguchi, Chenga Tshering and Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 36, 360-366 | 22 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-036

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This field study aimed to investigate the relationships between the urinary zearalenone (ZEN) concentration, which reflects dietary ZEN intake, and the numbers of total and transferable embryos in superovulated cattle. A total of 38 cows (Japanese Black, n=16; Holstein, n=22) were superovulated for commercial embryo production. Urine samples were collected from all cows at the time of embryo flushing, and the urinary ZEN concentration was measured. The ZEN concentration was corrected for the creatinine (Crea) concentration as follows: ZEN (pg/mL)/Crea (mg/dL); the corrected ZEN concentration was expressed in pg/mg Crea. The cows were divided into 2 groups according to whether the urinary ZEN level was less than (group 1) or more than (group 2) the mean value for each breed (Japanese Black: 97.4 pg/mg Crea; range, 44.5-91.3 pg/mg Crea; Holstein: 155.5 pg/mg Crea; range, 32.7-146.9 pg/mg Crea). The embryo flushing results were compared between the 2 groups within each breed. Overall, the total number of embryos collected and the number of transferable embryos did not differ significantly between the groups. These results suggest that natural ZEN contamination resulting in urine levels below the threshold value (i.e., below the maximal permissible urinary ZEN concentration) does not affect embryo production in Japanese Black and Holstein cows undergoing superovulation.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of season on some blood metabolites and haptoglobin in dairy cows during postpartum period
Daniela Alberghina, Giuseppe Piccione, Stefania Casella, Michele Panzera, Massimo Morgante and Matteo Gianesella
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 35, 354-359 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-035

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of season (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on some blood metabolite in dairy cows during postpartum period. Blood samples were collected from 195 clinically healthy dairy cows of 8 Italian dairy herds in spring (April-May 15.5±4 °C and 69.5±0.7 %), summer (June-July 23±1.5 °C and 69±1.3 %) and autumn (September-October 17±2 °C and 72.5±2 %). Total proteins, albumin, globulins, urea, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), b-hydroxybutyrate (b-HBA) and haptoglobin (Hp) were analysed. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant effect of season (P<0.05) on all studied parameters, except to PCV, globulins and b-HBA. A positive significant correlation was found only between albumin and total cholesterol in summer (r=0.39; P<0.01) and autumn (r=0.40; P<0.001). T hese results indicated the influence of season on blood metabolites in dairy cows during postpartum period.

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Original study (Abstract)
The current EU rules on bovine electronic identification systems: state of the art and its further development
Annamaria Passantino
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 34, 344-353 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-034

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Regulation (EC) No 1760/2000 establishes a system for the identification of bovine animals, and regulates the mandatory and voluntary labeling of beef and beef products. While bovine ear tags must bear an identifying code, the current EU rules do not regulate electronic tags for bovine. Although the current system is perceived as being efficient by most of the stakeholders and is in line with current policy objectives, it could be improved in terms of accuracy and speed in order to reduce: identification errors, notification and up-date times for the central database, and possible delays in the management of disease outbreak crises when they occur. In view of the direction already taken regarding the reinforced system for the identification of sheep and goats, it is highly desirable to move towards electronic identification of bovine animals bearing in mind that the implementing measures must permit a satisfactory community-wide introduction of such a system. Recently the European Commission proposed the introduction, on a voluntary basis, of an electronic identification system (EID) for bovine animals. This paper briefly provides a legal outline of the bovine identification and considers the benefits and/or disadvantages of the implementation of an EID. It is emphasized that bovine EID could bring benefits to farmers and other stakeholders as it could reduce the administrative burden through the simplification of the current administrative procedures; it could enhance consumer protection, improve disease prevention and control and crisis management, support the competitiveness of the sector, and improve trade perspectives.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of lactation period on the fatty acid composition in mares’ milk from different breeds
Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko, Ryszard Tomczyński and Stefan S. Smoczyński
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 33, 335-343 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-033

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Analyses were carried out on the fatty acid composition of milk fat originating from mares of three breeds: Polish Cold-Blooded, Wielkopolski and Konik Polski. Milk was collected from mares in the early, mid and late lactation. Determination of fatty acids was conducted with the gas chromatography method. The analysis of fatty acid composition demonstrated that over the entire lactation period, unsaturated fatty acids (from 52.96 % to 62.46 %), represented mainly by linolenic (22.15 %) and oleic (19.98 %) acids, were predominant only in samples originating from mares of the Wielkopolski breed. In milk of mares of Konik Polski, saturated fatty acids appeared to predominate (51.95 % and 52.95 %) in the early and mid lactation, whereas unsaturated fatty acids (62.28 %) predominated in the late lactation. In the case of milk samples of the Polish Cold-Blooded mares, saturated fatty acids (represented mainly by palmitic acid) were observed to prevail in the early and late lactation (55.77 % and 61.31 %), whereas unsaturated fatty acids (52.20 %) were found to negligibly prevail in the mid lactation. The study confirmed that fatty acid composition was determined by the period of lactation and breed of the mares.

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Original study (Abstract)
Association of a polymorphism in 3' untranslated region of OLR1 gene with milk fat and protein in dairy cows
Masoud Soltani-Ghombavani, Saeid Ansari-Mahyari and Mohammad Ali Edriss
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 32, 28-334 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-032

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Oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor1 (OLR1) is the major cell surface receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). The role of OLR1 in lipid metabolism and existence of milk-related QTL in the vicinity of OLR1 gene has prompted the investigation of OLR1 as a candidate gene influencing milk production traits. The present study explored the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3' untranslated region of OLR1 gene (OLR1g.8232 C>A) with milk-related traits in 408 Iranian Holstein cows. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was performed for genotyping of the animals. Animals with genotype CC had the highest and animals with genotype AA had the lowest fat percentage while genotype AC was intermediate (P<0.05). Cows carrying genotype CC showed more milk fat yield compared to genotypes AC (P<0.1) and AA (P<0.01). Cows of genotypes CC and AC had a higher milk protein percentage than those of genotype AA (P<0.01). Regarding the association revealed, the SNP has the potential to be considered as a marker in marker-assisted selection

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Original study (Abstract)
Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of Karayaka female lambs born in different seasons
Ugur Sen, Mehmet Kuran and Umran Ensoy
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 31, 315-327 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-031

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The aim of this study was to determine growth performance, carcass and meat quality of Karayaka female lambs born in different seasons. Winter born (breeding season; n=15) and autumn born (out of the breeding season; n=15) singleton female lambs were used in the study. Birth and slaughter weights of lambs in both groups were similar, but the weaning weight of the autumn born lambs was higher (P<0.05). The autumn born lambs had lower carcass yield, lung, spleen and gastrocnemious muscle weights (P<0.05), but higher liver, kidney, empty reticulo-rumen, empty small intestine, internal fat, suprarenal fat weights and a higher fat thickness over the longissimus dorsi muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, the winter born lambs had higher cooking loss, drip loss and shear force values (P<0.05), but lower dry matter and intramuscular fat (P<0.05) in longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus muscles. There were significant differences between both groups in terms of meat colour characteristics (P<0.05) except b* values for longissimus dorsi at 1 h and for semitendinosus at 24 h. The results suggest that Karayaka female lambs born in winter and autumn seasons have different meat quality parameters and growth patterns at pre- and post-weaning.

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Original study (Abstract)
Influence of dietary magnesium and selenium level on growth-performance and carcass-meat quality in finishing diets for feedlot Pelibuey lambs
Luz Marina Hernandez-Calva, J. Efren Ramirez-Bribiesca, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Laura Hernandez-Cruz, Leonel Avendaño-Reyes, Ignacio Dominguez Vara and Lee R. McDowell
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 30, 303-314 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-030

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of supplemental dietary selenium (Se) and magnesium (Mg) on feedlot lambs. Sixty-four male lambs were randomly distributed to the following treatments: 1) low level of Mg and Se: diet with 0.18 % of Mg and 0.1 μg Se/g, 2) with supplementation of magnesium oxide (MgO): diet with 0.32 % of Mg and 0.1 μg Se/g, 3) with supplementation of Sodium selenite (Na2SeO3): diet with 0.3 μg Se/g and 0.18 % of Mg, 4) With supplementation of MgO and Na2SeO3: diet with 0.32 % of Mg and 0.3 μg Se/g. There were no differences (P>0.05) in the average daily gain and feed conversion but Se supplement with Na2SeO3 (0.3 μg Se/g) enhanced dry matter intake, dressing percentage (P<0.05) and leg muscle weight (P<0.02). The average values of the water retained potential, coordinate L, a, and sensory analysis were different with Se (P<0.05). Magnesium suplemented as inorganic source (0.32 % of Mg) enhanced (P<0.05) some characteristics in sensorial meat analysis.

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Original study (Abstract)
Post-thawing colour changes in meat of foals as affected by feeding level and post-thawing time
Alessandra Tateoa, Pasquale De Paloa, Aristide Maggiolinoa and Pasquale Centoducatia
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 29, 293-302 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-029

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The aim of the present work was to investigate how chromatic properties of foal meat can vary after thawing out in relation to the feeding level of 11 months old horses and to the post-thawing time. Thirty-six Italian Heavy Draught Horse foals were used for the trial. They were subdivided in three groups according feeding level: FL150=150 %, FL180=180 % and FL200=200 % of the energy maintenance requirements. Two different surfaces were investigated for each sample: daily renewed cutting surface and not renewed cutting surface. Lightness fell on both surfaces with the increasing of the feeding level (P<0.01). The redness of both investigated surfaces increased with feeding level (P<0.01), while yellowness decreased (P<0.05). Consumers prefer to purchase meat that is red rather than brown in colour. So, from a chromatic perspective the thawed meat of Italian Heavy Draught Horse foals fed with a lower feeding level proved to be that which best meets the market requirements.

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Original study (Abstract)
Application of PIT tags for individual identification of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)
Sophie Oesau, Georg Thaller, Carsten Schulz and Jens Tetens
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 28, 285-292 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-028

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Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags only work in very close proximity of the receiver (cm distance). Therefore, active transponders are mainly used in behavioural monitoring. In the present study, the effects of intraabdominal implantation of PIT tags on survival, well-being and growth performance of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were investigated. Furthermore, the tag retention rate and read out error rate of all tags were examined. Passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in the abdominal cavity of nearly 6,000 turbots. All tags were readout and checked for correct function over a period of 122 days every five and a half weeks. No significant effects of tagging on fish survival (mortality rate <0.2 %), health or growth were detected during the trial period. Tag retention rate was 100 % and no malfunctions were observed. Results suggest that turbots can be marked with PIT tags in the abdominal cavity without obvious negative influences on performance traits and tag retention rate.

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Original study (Abstract)
Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield and composition in Iranian buffaloes
Mostafa Madad, Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Abdol Ahad Shadparvar and Davood Kianzad
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 27, 276-284 | 15 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-027

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The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk percentages of fat and protein in Iranian buffaloes. A total of 9,278 test-day production records obtained from 1,501 first lactation buffaloes on 414 herds in Iran between 1993 and 2009 were used for the analysis. Genetic parameters for productive traits were estimated using random regression test-day models. Regression curves were modeled using Legendre polynomials (LPs). Heritability estimates were low to moderate for milk production traits and ranged from 0.09 to 0.33 for milk yield, 0.01 to 0.27 for milk protein percentage and 0.03 to 0.24 for milk fat percentage, respectively. Genetic correlations ranged from −0.24 to 1 for milk yield between different days in milk over the lactation. Genetic correlations of milk yield at different days in milk were often higher than permanent environmental correlations. Genetic correlations for milk protein percentage ranged from −0.89 to 1 between different days in milk. Also, genetic correlations for milk percentage of fat ranged from −0.60 to 1 between different days in milk. The highest estimates of genetic and permanent environmental correlations for milk traits were observed at adjacent test-days. Ignoring heritability estimates for milk yield and milk protein percentage in the first and final days of lactation, these estimates were higher in the 120 days of lactation. Test-day milk yield heritability estimates were moderate in the course of the lactation, suggesting that this trait could be applied as selection criteria in Iranian milking buffaloes.

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Original study (Abstract)
Model comparisons and genetic parameter estimates of growth and the Kleiber ratio in Shal sheep
Hossein Mohammadi, Mohammad Moradi Shahrebabak, Hossein Moradi Shahrebabak, Abolfazl Bahrami and Mohammad Dorostkar
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 26, 264-275 | 8 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-026

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Genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated for lamb growth traits for the Shal sheep using an animal model. Data on lamb growth performance were extracted from available performance records at the Shal sheep Station in Qazvin, Iran. Studied traits were body weights of lambs at birth (BW), at 3 months of age as weaning weight (WW), 6 months weight (6MW), 9 months weight (9MW), yearling weight (YW), average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADG) and Kleiber ratio from birth to weaning (KR). Significant random effects for each trait were determined by fitting additive direct genetic effects, additive maternal effects, covariance between additive direct and additive maternal effects, maternal permanent environmental and maternal temporary environmental (common litter) effects under twelve animal models. Univariate analyses were carried out under the most appropriate model, determined by AIC test. Direct heritability estimates for BW, WW, ADG, KR, 6MW, 9MW and YW were 0.13, 0.19, 0.18, 0.05, 0.16, 0.18 and 0.19, respectively. Maternal additive genetic effects were fitted only for BW and WW; corresponding estimates of 0.12 and 0.10 obtained for maternal heritability of BW and WW, respectively. Maternal permanent environmental effects have low contribution in expression of KR and lead to estimates of 0.06 and 0.06 for maternal permanent environmental variance as a proportion of phenotypic variance (c2) of these traits, respectively. All pre-weaning traits, except KR, were affected by litter effects. The magnitude of ratio of common litter variance to phenotypic variance (l2) was 0.05, 0.12 and 0.14 for BW, WW and ADG, respectively. Direct genetic correlations were positive and ranged from 0.09 for KR-YW to 0.80 for WW-ADG; phenotypic ones ranged from 0.18 for KR-YW to 0.87 for WW-ADG.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on goat oocyte meiotic maturation
Mehdi Heidari Amale, Ahmad Zare Shahneh and Salman Nasrollahi
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 25, 255-263 | 8 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-025

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Nitric oxide is a biological signalling molecule that plays a crucial role in oocyte maturation of mammalians. It is generated by the nitric oxide synthase enzyme from L-arginine. In this study we assessed the effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on meiotic maturation of goat oocytes. So, different concentrations of L-NAME (0.1, 1, 10 mM) were added to the maturation medium to evaluate the effect of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase on cumulus expansion and meiotic resumption of goat oocytes. The results showed that none of the concentrations affected cumulus expansion but the formation of the first polar body of the oocytes was suppressed in a dose dependent manner. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with 10 mM L-NAME. Moreover, to confirm the results and to evaluate whether this effect is reversible, 0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) was added only to the maturation medium which had the highest concentration of L-NAME (10 mM). The concomitant addition of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor with nitric oxide donor reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NAME on meiotic maturation. These results indicated that the nitric oxide / nitric oxide synthase system is involved in the maturation of goat oocytes and that nitric oxide requirement for nuclear maturation is higher than that for cumulus expansion.

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Original study (Abstract)
Impact of maintenance systems on the Hucul mares’ reproductive rates
Jadwiga Topczewska and Wanda Krupa
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 24, 246-254 | 8 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-024

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An assessment of the reproductive impacts of maintenance systems, stable-pasture keeping and natural pasture, on Hucul horses was undertaken during the period 1990-2010. During the period covered by the analysis, much higher reproductive results were obtained in natural breeding systems. During the same period (1990-2010), pregnancy levels of 82.2 %, fertility of 80.44 %, sterility of 17.76 % including prolificacy of 77.45 % were attained under guided breeding systems. The corresponding figures for natural breeding were 93.50 %, 90.25 %, 6.50 % and 85.56 %, respectively. On farm, where reproductive guided breeding system was practiced, the best breeding results were obtained by mating mares with stallions from Hroby line while the least were with stallions from Gurgul line. However, in stables where reproduction was devoid of human interference the Hroby and Goral lines were most benefitting. A decline in pregnancy and fecundity accompanied by an increase in sterility were observed on both breeding facilities.

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Original study (Abstract)
Determination of the best model for estimating heritability of economic traits and their genetic and phenotypic trends in Iranian native fowl
Mona Salehi Nasab, Saeed Zerehdaran, Mokhtar Ali Abbasi, Sadegh Alijani and Saeed Hassani
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 23, 237-245 | 8 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-023

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The objective of the present study was to estimate the heritability and to assess the existence of maternal effects for economic traits in Iranian native fowl. Variance components were estimated for body weight at hatch (BW0), 8 (BW8) and 12 (BW12) weeks of age, age at sexual maturity and weight at sexual maturity, egg number and average egg weight at 28th, 30th and 32nd weeks using restricted maximum likelihood method and six animal models. The best model was determined using the Akaike information criterion for each trait. For age at sexual maturity, the basic model consisting of direct genetic effects was superior. For weight at sexual maturity and egg number, a model consisting of maternal permanent environmental effects in addition to direct genetic effects was the best. For average egg weight at 28th, 30th and 32nd weeks, the model with direct and maternal genetic effects assuming no covariance between them was the best. For BW0, BW8 and BW12, the model including maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects in addition to direct genetic effects was the most appropriate. The estimates of direct heritability ranged from 0.05 (BW0) to 0.35 (weight at sexual maturity). Direct genetic variance and heritability were overestimated if maternal effects were ignored in the statistical model for all traits except ASM. The results indicated that the evaluation of direct and maternal genetic and phenotypic trends based on the best model for each trait was carried out. Maternal genetic trends for BW0, BW8, BW12 and average egg weight at 28th, 30th and 32nd weeks were significantly positive. Present results indicated favourable effects of the performed breeding program for all traits except BW0, during generations.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of protected methionine supplementation on milk production and reproduction in first calf heifers
Hosam H. Titi, Saleh I. Azzam, and Mufeed A. Alnimer
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 22, 225-236 | 8 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-022

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Sixty Holstein heifers (30 days in milk) were used to examine the effects of protected methionine on milk production, milk composition and reproduction performance up to 100 days post-partum. Heifers were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups (30 each) receiving either 14 or 16 % crude protein. Heifers of each treatment group were assigned into three subgroups with a daily supplementation of 0, 15 or 25 g/hd/d of rumen protected methionine. Diet fed was a total mixed ration consisting of fresh alfalfa, corn silage and a concentrate mixture. In addition, alfalfa hay was offered ad libitum during the whole experimental period. Supplementation of the 14 % crude protein diet with 25 g/hd/d rumen protected methionine increased (P<0.05) milk yield, fat corrected milk, energy corrected milk,
percentages of milk fat, total solids and casein as well as yields of milk fat and protein compared to those without or with 15 g/hd/d rumen protected methionine. Dry matter intake, feed to fat corrected milk ratio, body weight and body condition score were also improved (P<0.05) with the supplementation of rumen protected methionine at the same level compared to the other levels. Meanwhile, milk protein percentage and feed to milk ratio were unaffected. At 16 % crude protein, milk yield, fat corrected milk, energy corrected milk, fat %, yields of fat and protein as well as feed:milk ratio and feed:fat corrected milk ratio were all increased (P<0.05) with rumen protected methionine supplementation regardless of its level. However, milk content of protein and total solids were unaffected. Casein was only increased (P<0.05) when rumen protected methionine was supplemented to this diet at 15 g/hd/d. Dry matter intake, final body weight and body condition score were increased (P<0.05) when rumen protected methionine was supplemented at 25 g/hd/d. Reproductive performance measurements were unaffected by rumen protected methionine supplementation to both diets. These results indicate that supplementation of rumen protected methionine would improve milk production performance at both dietary protein levels with no effect on reproductive performance.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of ß-lactoglobulin and κ-casein genes polymorphism on milk composition in indigenous Zel sheep
Soheil Yousefi, Mojtaba Ahani Azari, Saeed Zerehdaran, Rahmat Samiee and Rasoul Khataminejhad
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 21, 216-224 | 26 April 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-021

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The effect of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and κ-casein (CSN3) genotypes on milk composition were evaluated in Iranian indigenous Zel sheep breed. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by digestion with RsaI enzyme for exon II of the β-LG gene and SSCP method for exon IV of the CSN3 gene. Polymorphism was detected in all PCR products. β-lactoglobulin showed two alleles and three genotypes and CSN3 gene revealed two conformational patterns, respectively. Results indicated that there were significant associations between AB genotype of β-LG gene with higher fat and lactose percentages and also between K1 pattern of CSN3 gene with higher lactose percentage. Therefore, it is feasible to improve milk composition in Zel sheep breed using β-LG and CSN3 genes.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of relocation and sire lineage on behaviour and milk yield of dairy cows
Jan Broucek, Michal Uhrincat, Zuzana Palkovicova, Vladimir Tancin and Anton Hanus
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 20, 208-215 | 1 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-020

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The objective of the present study was to analyse the maintenance behaviour of cows after shift from tie-stall barn to free-stall barn. The activities were analysed in relation to the time of moving of the cows. Forty-one Holstein cows were used. Cows were observed for three 24-h (first, second and tenth day) periods after moving into the new barn with free-stall housing. The shortest times of lying and ruminating were recorded at the first day after relocation (336.3 min, 628.0 min, 756.1 min, P<0.001; 318.0 min, 325.0 min, 440.5 min, P<0.001). The longest time was recorded for the duration of standing (1 103.7 min, 811.9 min, 683.9 min, P<0.001). The period’s number of lying and ruminating were the lowest at the first day and highest at the tenth day after relocation (7.34, 14.07, 16.34, 14.32, 15.75, 18.58, P<0.001). The opposite trend was found in the period’s number of feeding and standing (17.46, 12.73, 9.54 and 24.93, 18.19 and 12.41; P<0.001). Sires progeny was significantly manifested in times of total lying, standing (P<0.05) and feeding (P<0.01) as well as in the number of lying periods (P<0.05). Cows produced significantly less milk at the first day after removing than the last day before (23.76 kg vs. 30.97 kg, P<0.001). Milk yield returned towards basal levels at the 13th day (31.82 kg). Milk production was different among sires.

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Short communication (Abstract)
Looking for breed differentiating SNP loci and for a SNP set for parentage testing in Mangalica
Attila Zsolnai, Gábor Tóth, János Molnár, Viktor Stéger, Ferenc Marincs, Anna Jánosi, Gabriella Ujhelyi, Erika Koppányné Szabó, Anita Mohr, István Anton, Réka Szántó-Egész, Rita Sipos, István Egerszegi, Klára Dallmann, Péter Tóth, Adrienn Micsinai, Klaus-Peter Brüssow and József Rátky
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 19, 200-207 | 1 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-019

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The whole genome of Mangalica animals has been screened on the Illumina porcine chip giving the possibility (1) to replace the previously applied ten microsatellite markers by nine SNP loci to classify the Blond, Swallow-Belly and Red Mangalica individuals into three different breed groups (P>0.95); (2) to propose 54 SNP loci for parentage testing in Mangalica pigs where the exclusion probability is 0.999115 if one parent is known and the probability of identity is 1.54×10-23.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic parameters, genetic trends and inbreeding depression of growth and carcass traits in Pannon terminal line rabbits
István Nagy, Petra Gyovai, István Radnai, Henrietta Nagyné Kiszlinger, János Farkas and Zsolt Szendrő
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 18, 191-199 | 1 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-018

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Genetic parameters, inbreeding depression and genetic trends were estimated for average daily gain between the ages of 5-10 weeks and thigh muscle volume (measured in vivo with computerized tomography) in a group of 22 098 Pannon terminal line rabbits born between 2006 and 2011 and reared in 3 396 litters. The data sets were analysed with bi-variate animal models taking pedigree completeness (complete generation equivalent) into account. By 2011, all rabbits were inbred and the average inbreeding coefficient and complete generation equivalent of the population were 7.69 % and 11.89 %, respectively. Estimated heritability was moderate both for average daily gain (0.23±0.02) and thigh muscle volume (0.25±0.03). Litter effects were low for both traits (0.16±0.00 and 0.09±0.01 respectively). The genetic correlation coefficient estimate between average daily gain and thigh muscle volume was also low (0.02±0.08). Significant inbreeding depression (per 10 % inbreeding) was only detected for average daily gain (0.57 g/d). The estimated annual selection response was substantial both for average daily gain and thigh muscle volume (1.49 g/d and 5.84 cm3, respectively), proving the efficiency of the breeding programme.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of different fat supplements on the antioxidant capacity of cows' milk
Kamila Puppel, Teresa Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Beata Kuczyńska, Marcin Gołębiewski and Marta Kordyasz
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 17, 178-190 | 8 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-017

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This study examined the effect of different fat supplements on the antioxidants of cow’s milk. Thirty five Polish Holstein Friesian cows at 180±20 day of lactation and averaging 17.71±2.26 kg/d of milk were divided into five equal groups. There were five treatments groups: 300 g/d of fish oil, 500 g/d of Opal linseed, 500 g/d of Szafir linseed, 150 g/d of fish oil + 250 g/d of Opal linseed, 150 g/d of fish oil + 250 g/d Szafir linseed. Milk samples were collected five times during the 21 day of supplementation period: at the 1st, 14th and 21th day of the experimental period, and also at the 14th and 21st day after the supplement withdrawal. Diet supplementation with the Szafir linseed improved the chemical composition and milk yield at the 21st day of experiment. The highest level of malondialdehyde was recorded in fish oil, Opal linseed, fish oil + Opal linseed, and fish oil + Szafir linseed groups, and the lowest in the Szafir linseed group. After the 21st day of supplementation the concentration of α-retinol was significantly increased in all groups by 23 to 183 %. The highest level of α-tocopherol was found in fish oil + Opal linseed group at the 21st day of supplementation. Total antioxidative status increased in all experimental groups; however, the highest peak was recorded in fish oil + Szafir linseed and Szafir linseed group. The experiment confirmed that manipulation in cows’ diet may improve antioxidative capacity of milk.

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Original study (Abstract)
Status of selenium and correlation with blood GSH-Px in goats and their kids in organic breeding fed with different levels of organic selenium
Zvonko Antunović, Tomislav Klapec, Suzana Ćavar, Marcela Šperanda, Valentina Pavić, Josip Novoselec and Željka Klir
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 16, 169-177 | 1 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-016

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The aim of this research was to determine how the supplement of organic selenium in the diet at different concentrations reflects on the content of blood Se and GSH-Px activity and their correlation in goats and their kids in organic breeding. The study included 24 Alpine goat breeds during lactation and their kids. Goats were divided into three groups depending on dietary treatments. Goats were fed with the cereals mixture 1 kg/per day in control group (C). Organic selenium supplied as selenised yeast in the first experimental group (E-I) 0.015 % and in the second experimental group (E-II) 0.030 % in cereals mixture. The addition of organic selenium significantly (P<0.01) increased blood Se of goats and kids in E-I and E-II groups in relation to C group and higher (P<0.05) in E-II in comparison with the E-I group. Concentrations of Se followed by GSH-Px activity, and were higher in the EI and E-II groups in comparison with C group. In the blood of suckling kids has determined higher (P<0.01) GSH-Px activity in E-I and E-II groups in relation to C group. It was also determined higher GSH-Px in the blood of kids E-II group compared to the EI group. Significant correlations was found between Se levels and GSH-Px activity in goats and kids, but were significant only in the goats of E-II group. The results obtained concentration of Se and GSH-Px in the blood goats and kids showed the validity of adding prganic selenium into food in organic breeding.

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Original study (Abstract)
Superovulation in cows synchronized with two different progesterone+oestradiol protocols
Bülent Bülbül, Mesut Kırbaş, Şükrü Dursun and Mehmet Köse
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 15, 160-168 | 1 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-015

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A total of 26 Brown Swiss cows were used to compare the synchronization and superovulatory response of follicle stimulating hormone treated cows that were synchronized with progesterone+oestradiol valerate or benzoate. Control cows (n=8) were superstimulated with follicle stimulating hormone using twice daily injections with decreasing doses from day 10-13 after determined reference oestrus. Cows in treatment groups were received either ear implant (n=9) containing norgestomet+oestradiol valerate or progesterone releasing intravaginal device (n=9) containing progesterone+oestradiol benzoate, at random stage of the oestrus cycle, for 9 days. Seven days after the implant and progesterone releasing intravaginal device insertion, follicle stimulating hormone was injected as described in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups for superovulation responses. In conclusion, both protocols synchronized the oestrus cycle in follicle stimulating hormone treated cows and, any of the protocols evaluated in this study can be used as a pretreatment for superstimulation started on the seventh day of the implant or progesterone releasing intravaginal device insertion in Brown Swiss cows.

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Original study (Abstract)
Feeding behaviour in dairy cows with and without the influence of clinical diseases or subclinical disorders
Julia Dollinger and Otto Kaufmann
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 14, 149-159 | 1 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-014

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The objective of this study was to describe and compare circadian pattern of feed intake and feeding behaviour in healthy and diseased dairy cows. Test animals (n=138) were separated into two groups according to their health status. Health and management data were used to exclude cows with clinical or subclinical diseases. Fifteen cows of the test herd complied with the defined criteria and formed the reference group »healthy«. The behaviour of the remaining 123 cows was compared with the reference group. Both groups were used to analyse the feed intake and feeding behaviour on a daily base and in the course of 24 h. During a defined time range from day 28 post-partum to day 56 post-partum behavioural differences within these groups were analysed. There were no significant differences in daily feed intake (40.7 vs. 41.9 kg fresh matter per day, P=0.42). However, feeding behaviour pattern differed between the two groups (daily feeder visits, daily feeding time, number of daily feeder visit, number of daily meals, meal duration, feeding time within a meal, feeder visits per meal). For example, average feeder visit was shorter in the group with subclinical/ clinical health disorders than in the reference group (7.2 vs. 8.1 min, P=0.024). Differences in circadian feeding behaviour could be detected by analysing the feed intake and feeding time over the course of the day. Linear regression analyses showed strong correlations between feeding time and feed intake on hourly base (R²=0.8) and on daily base (R²=0.7).

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Original study (Abstract)
Relationship between conformation traits and gait characteristics in Pura Raza Español horses
María José Sánchez, María Dolores Gómez, Francisco Peña, José García Monterde, José Luís Morales, Antonio Molina and Mercedes Valera
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 13, 137-148 | 1 March 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-013

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In the breeding program of breeds such as the Pura Raza Español horse, selection by gait quality is of great interest because of their use for dressage performance. However, biokinematic analyses are expensive and data processing is time consuming. So, indirect measurements related to movement quality are alternatively used for a precocious selection of the animals. The aim of this study is to estimate the genetic correlations between 13 conformation measurements and 16 biokinematic variables at trot (4 linear, 6 temporal and 6 angular) in order to identify objective selection criteria for locomotion ability. A total of 130 Pura Raza Español horses from 24 studs, aged between 4-7 years old, were measured and their biokinematic variables were obtained in experimental conditions on a treadmill. There were 155 significant genetic correlations between conformation and biokinematic traits. Croup length was the most correlated trait with biokinematic variables at trot (16), and croup width was the least correlated one (7). Forelimb length and forelimb duration were the most correlated with conformation measurements (12), whereas minimal angle of carpus was the least correlated one (5). All the conformation measurements were genetically correlated with biokinematic variables, and through these relationships when trotting, a total of 6 body measurements were selected for the indirect and precocious selection of gait quality, which could be included directly or combined in body indices.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic parameters of body conformation and performance traits of Wielkopolski horses registered in the successive volumes of the herdbook
Marian Kaproń, Elżbieta Czerniak, Marek Łukaszewicz and Agata Danielewicz
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 12, 127-136 | 22 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-012

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The study covered 11,376 horses registered in the six successive volumes of the Wielkopolski herdbook. Level of variability in the body conformation indices and in the performance value indices were analysed. The genetic basis parameters for the body conformation and performance traits of the Wielkopolski horses were assessed. A high level of heritability was identified for the wither height (h2=0.566) and cannon circumference (h2=0.418), with an average heritability level of the other analysed characteristics (ranging from h2=0.205 – for the stallion performance test results to h2=0.350 – in the case of chest circumference). On the other hand, genetic correlation between the analysed indices produced the highest values for the relationship between wither height and cannon (rG=0.636) and chest (rG=0.551) circumference, as well as for the interrelation between the above dimensions and the following body structure indices: "boniness" (rG=0.690) and "bulkiness" (rG=0.541). Considering the extensive scope of the study – and the fact that the breed population was registered in the Wielkopolski herdbook – the authors suggested the advisability of using the results of the present study for the modification of breeding programs with a view to improve the breed in question, both its principal population and the one included in the program of gene-pool protection.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effectiveness of "natural stockmanship" training in cattle
Paulina Abramowicz, Marcin Gołębiewski, Aleksandra Górecka-Bruzda and Piotr Brzozowski
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 11, 109-126 | 22 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-011

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The objective of this study was to investigate whether natural stockmanship training can be effective in the elimination of avoidance reactions by generating submissive behaviour in dairy cattle. The training session was divided into two procedures: natural stockmanship training focused on getting a submissive response to human approach; natural halter training focused on acceptance of stroking with a halter and fitting it. Both procedures were conducted on unrestrained animals by skilled trainer. Two tests were developed to assess the effectiveness of the method: »udder touching« testing natural stockmanship training and »halter-fitting« testing both natural stockmanship training and natural halter training. Training procedures followed the idea of employing natural behaviour of cattle (avoiding discomfort of pressure) to negative reinforcement conditioning (chasing away when an animal moved away) and habituation to trainer and training/testing arena. Sixty-three (n=63) animals from two barns were studied: 32 heifers and 31 cows followed by control group of 7 heifers and 11 cows. The approach developed proved to be an effective method of handling cattle: 93.7 % of animals completed »udder test« in an average 400.4 s and 75.8 % completed »halter fitting test« in an average 559.7 s compared to control group results: 77.8 % and 33.3 %, respectively. Animals responded with submission and avoidance distance was shortened to zero. Previous experience of being milked had a significant positive effect on »udder touching« test performance and duration but not »halter-fitting« test. No environmental impact was found and animals from both farms responded similarly

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Short communication (Abstract)
Seasonal changes in scrotal circumference, the quantity and quality of ram semen in Hungary
János Oláh, Szilvia Kusza, Sándor Harangi, János Posta, András Kovács, Anna Pécsi, Csilla Budai and András Jávor
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 10, 102-108 | 22 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-010

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In this study, the quantitative and qualitative traits of semen were studied in seven rams of different breeds (Prolific Merino, Cokanski Tsigai, Barbados Blackbelly, Bábolna Tetra, Awassi, Ile de France and Suffolk), bred in Hungary. The semen parameters (density, volume, pH, mass motility, % motility, thawing and heat resistance), freezability of semen and the factors influencing these parameters were evaluated with respect to breed and season. The fresh and post-thawing quality of semen varied greatly with the breed and the season. The post-thawing motility of semen cells was outstandingly high for Awassi rams in three seasons. During the test period, the smallest scrotal circumference was measured for Barbados Blackbelly, except for the summer when it increased by 12.5 cm. The reintroduction of artificial insemination could lead to a significant advancement of the sheep sector in Hungary. To promote this, we have provided useful and new information for breeders and organisations.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic evaluation for longevity of Croatian Simmental bulls using a piecewise Weibull model
Sonja Jovanovac, Nikola Raguž, Johann Sölkner and Gábor Mészáros
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 9, 89-101 | 22 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-009

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Genetic evaluation of sires for functional longevity was conducted using survival analysis techniques. The data set consisted of 49,659 Simmental cows with first calving from 1997 to 2008. A piecewise Weibull sire model was used to estimate breeding values of 251 bulls for functional length of productive life of their daughters. The model was stratified by parity i.e. a separate baseline hazard was computed for each stratum. Besides the random sire effect, the model included the fixed time independent effects of age at first calving, herd size and region as well as the time dependent effects of relative milk production and year*season of first calving. The highest impact on longevity was found for relative milk production. Cows with the lowestmilk yields were at approximately 2.7 times higherrisk of culling compared to cows with average milk production. Effects of age at first calving, herd size and country region had lower impact on longevity. Sire variance was 0.023 which results in a heritability of 0.06 for functional length of productive life. The average approximate reliability of estimated breeding values was 0.49. Genetic trend showed no clear tendency by year of birth of bulls.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effects of slaughter age and gender on carcass characteristics of indigenous Turkish Hairgoat kids reared under an extensive production system
H. Deger Oral Toplu, Ergun Omer Goksoy and Ahmet Nazligul
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 8, 75-88 | 22 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-008

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This study was conducted to investigate effects of slaughter age and gender on carcass characteristics of indigenous Hairgoat kids reared under an extensive production system. A total of 60 Hairgoat kids (30 females and 30 males) slaughtered at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age was used as the material of this study. In the study, the cold carcass weights of kids at 3-12 months of age were between 6.15 and 10.83 kg. The cold dressing percentage was determined as 47.04-52.65 %. The effect of slaughter age on this trait was statistically significant (P<0.001). The cold carcass weight and the cold dressing percentage increased with the slaughter age. The effect of kid gender on the cold carcass weight was statistically significant (P<0.001). The mean value of this trait in males was higher than the females. The percentages of omental-mesenteric fat (P<0.001) and kidney-knob and channel fat (P<0.01) significantly increased with slaughter age. Subcutan, intermuscular, total fat and muscle/bone percentages of the left half carcass significantly increased with slaughter age (P<0.01). However, bone (P<0.05) and muscle/total fat (P<0.01) percentages significantly decreased with slaughter age. The female kids had significantly higher values than males in terms of omental-mesenteric fat, kidney-knob and channel fat, subcutaneous, intermuscular and total carcass fat percentages (P<0.001). In conclusion, it is recommended that Hair goat kids should be slaughtered at 9 months of age under extensive management system to result in more edible meat production.

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Original study (Abstract)
Assessment of the effect of heterosis on semen parameters of two-breed crosses of Duroc, Hampshire and Pietrain boars
Anna Wysokińska and Stanisław Kondracki
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 7, 65-74 | 22 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-007

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The study was performed on 4,609 ejaculates obtained from 32 boars, including 14 pure-bred and 18 two-breed crosses. The ejaculates were collected manually every 4-5 days. The study involved ejaculates collected from each boar from the first day of its insemination use until the day of semen depletion. Each ejaculate was assessed for the following physical parameters: ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, percentage of spermatozoa with correct motility, total sperm count per ejaculate and number of insemination doses obtained from one ejaculate. The effect of heterosis was calculated on the physical parameters of the boar crosses ejaculates in relation to the mean value of a given parameter for the parent breeds. Positive and well pronounced heterosis effects were identified in the majority of the physical ejaculate parameters of the cross boars for all the cross-breeding variants. A negative effect of heterosis was only identified in the ejaculate sperm concentration of the Hampshire x Pietrain crosses. The highest ejaculatory efficiency was identified in the hybrids produced on the basis of the Hampshire breed. These breeders were also found to feature significant heterosis effects on ejaculate volume, total ejaculate sperm count and number of insemination doses prepared from one ejaculate.

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Original study (Abstract)
Data framework for efficient management of sequence and microsatellite data in biodiversity studies
Cong V. C. Truong, Zhivko Duchev and Eildert Groeneveld
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 6, 50-64 | 8 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-006

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In recent years, software packages for the management of biological data have rapidly been developing. However, currently, there is no general information system available for managing molecular data derived from both Sanger sequencing and microsatellite genotyping projects. A prerequisite to implementing such a system is to design a general data model which can be deployed to a wide range of labs without modification or customization. Thus, this paper aims to (1) suggest a uniform solution to efficiently store data items required in different labs, (2) describe procedures for representing data streams and data items (3) and construct a formalized data framework. As a result, the data framework has been used to develop an integrated information system for small labs conducting biodiversity studies.

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Short communication (Abstract)
Investigation of the premelanosome protein (PMEL or SILV) gene and identification of polymorphism excluding it as the determinant of the dilute locus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Luca Fontanesi, Emilio Scotti, Michela Colombo, Daniel Allain, Sevérine Deretz, Stefania Dall’olio, Vincenzo Russo and Ahmad Oulmouden
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 5, 42-49 | 8 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-005

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After the rediscovery of the Mendel’s laws, the domesticated European rabbit (Orycolagus cuniculus) has been the objective of pioneering studies on coat colour genetics. However, despite the early role of this species in defining genetic mechanisms determining this phenotypic trait, only recently a few loci have been characterized at the molecular level analysing also in rabbits genes already shown to affect coat colour in mice. We herein investigated the rabbit premelanosome protein (PMEL) gene, also known as melanocyte protein Pmel 17 (PMEL17) or silver (SILV), as mutations in the homologous gene in mice and other species produce phenotypic effects similar to what is observed in the dilute coat colour in rabbit. The rabbit dilute locus is determined by a recessive coat colour mutation that dilutes the black to blue (grey) interacting with the basic colours influenced by the agouti and extension loci. To investigate this candidate gene, we isolated and sequenced cDNAs as well as portions of intronic and exonic regions of the PMEL gene in several rabbits with different coat colours and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, including several missense mutations. One polymorphism, positioned in intron 7, was genotyped in a family in which there was segregation of the dilute coat colour. The results excluded PMEL as the causative gene for the dilute locus in rabbits, shortening the list of candidate genes that should be analysed to identify the mutation determining this phenotypic trait.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effects of air temperature and humidity on average daily gain in feedlot cattle of different genotypes
Kemal Yazgan, Fatin Cedden and Cihan Daştanbek
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 4, 28-41 | 8 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-004

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The purpose of this study was to observe Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental and cross breed Anatolian Black genotypes fattened in feedlot regarding their ability to tolerate temperature and humidity and to compare Temperature Humidity Index types under climatic conditions of Şanlıurfa province in Turkey. Data obtained from a commercial farm composed of 70,594 test day records of 11,117 cattle (6,513 Holstein, 3,546 Brown Swiss, 838 Simmental and 220 Anatolian Black Crosses). Meteorological data were provided from nearest weather station located 9.04 km away from feedlot area. THI values were calculated by using daily maximum, minimum and average air temperature and, humidity values according to three different combinations for each animal. Analysis were based on such a model that includes effects of year, sex, age, season, days on feed, beginning stage of fattening and several types of THI. Results showed that, Simmental and Anatolian Black genotypes were slightly more tolerant to heat stress compared to Holstein and Brown Swiss. In addition, Anatolian Black genotype was more sensitive to cold stress when compared to other genotypes. Different breakpoint values for stress and comfort zone intervals were obtained when different combinations of temperature and humidity variable (maximum or minimum) were used in THI formula. After 72 THI values, which is reported in literature as the threshold for heat stress in cattle, average daily gain loses were observed. But, this is only detected when maximum temperature and minimum humidity variable is used. Results from this study indicated that trends of temperature and humidity in the air were important factors for THI calculation types when data from the weather stations were used. Because, this gives useful information about, which combination of temperature and humidity values (maximum, minimum or average) best reflect the heat stress for genotype.

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Review (Abstract)
The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: Notes on rabbits and a review of the literature
R. Trevor Wilson and Orhan Yilmaz
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 3, 18-27 | 8 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-003

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The Turkish wild rabbit is known from ancient times. As a minor component of Turkey’s array of livestock and poultry there is no official information on numbers or production. The iconic Angora is the only native breed. Imported breeds include New Zealand White, California, Chinchilla, Line V and French Angora. The Angora is a registered breed and is being conserved ex situ in vivo. Official data give Angora weight as 3.5-4.0 kg in males and 4.0-4.5 kg in females, fibre production as 700-800 g from bucks and 1,000 g from does from four clips per year, first breeding age as 6 months, litter size 1-6 kits and production of four litters per year. Production research is limited but generally shows lower fibre output than official data. A comparative study with California and Line V rabbits showed the latter was heavier at birth and grew faster to 10 weeks. The rabbit has been used as an animal model in several studies. There is little information on meat and fibre marketing as there is on international trade but there have been sporadic imports of meat. Pathologies include coccidiosis, mange and myiasis. Constraints include lack of producer knowledge, poor quality feed, inadequate housing and lack of breeding stock. Opportunities lie in public and private support, genetic improvement for fibre for product diversification and increased incomes, improved marketing and niche markets for low cholesterol and low fat meat.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel on broiler chickens growth performance
Abbas Ebrahimi, Ali Ahmad Alaw Qotbi, Alireza Seidavi, Vito Laudadio and Vincenzo Tufarelli
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 2, 11-17 | 8 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-002

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The trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel on growth performance in broilers. A total of 400 male broiler chicks (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental DSOP. The dietary groups consisted of five diets fed for 42 days: control diet without feed additive, diet containing 1.5 % feed additive only in starter phase, diet containing 1.5 % feed additive during whole period (starter + grower), diet containing 3 % feed additive only in starter phase, diet containing 3 % feed additive during whole period. The growth responses achieved by broilers from all groups complied with the standards. However, adding up to 3 % DSOP in diet seems to depress feed intake, body weight gain increasing feed conversion ratio of both starter and growing broilers. Conversely, DSOP in the proportion of 1.5 % of feed seems to promote feed intake and weight gain in the period between the 1-21 days of age, indicating that DSOP can constitute a useful additive in the feeding of broilers. Further research is needed to assess the effects of DSOP to improve its suitability as a feed resource for poultry production.

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Original study (Abstract)
The equine DNAH3 gene: SNP discovery and exclusion of an involvement in recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in European Warmblood horses
Mostafa Shakhsi-Niaei, Jolanta Klukowska-Rötzler, Cord Drögemüller, Vincent Gerber and Tosso Leeb
Arch Tierz 56 (2013) 1, 1-10 | 8 February 2013 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-56-001

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Recurrent airway obstruction is one of the most common airway diseases affecting mature horses. Increased bronchoalveolar mucus, neutrophil accumulation in airways, and airway obstruction are the main features of this disease. Mucociliary clearance is a key component of pulmonary defense mechanisms. Cilia are the motile part of this system and a complex linear array of dynein motors is responsible for their motility by moving along the microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella. We previously detected a QTL for RAO on ECA 13 in a half-sib family of European Warmblood horses. The gene encoding DNAH3 is located in the peak of the detected QTL and encodes a dynein subunit. Therefore, we analysed this gene as a positional and functional candidate gene for RAO. In a mutation analysis of all 62 exons we detected 53 new polymorphisms including 7 non-synonymous variants. We performed an association study using 38 polymorphisms in a cohort of 422 animals. However, after correction for multiple testing we did not detect a significant association of any of these polymorphisms with RAO (P>0.05). Therefore, it seems unlikely that variants at the DNAH3 gene are responsible for the RAO QTL in European Warmblood horses.

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