Abstracts volume 57 (2014) 1-34

Original study
Analysis of correlated count data using generalised linear mixed models exemplified by field data on aggressive behaviour of boars
Norbert Mielenz, Joachim Spilke and Eberhard von Borel
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 26, 1-19 | 29 January 2015 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-026

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Population-averaged and subject-specific models are available to evaluate count data when repeated observations per subject are present. The latter are also known in the literature as generalised linear mixed models (GLMM). In GLMM repeated measures are taken into account explicitly through random animal effects in the linear predictor. In this paper the relevant GLMMs are presented based on conditional Poisson or negative binomial distribution of the response variable for given random animal effects. Equations for the repeatability of count data are derived assuming normal distribution and logarithmic gamma distribution for the random animal effects. Using count data on aggressive behaviour events of pigs (barrows, sows and boars) in mixed-sex housing, we demonstrate the use of the Poisson »log-gamma intercept«, the Poisson »normal intercept« and the »normal intercept« model with negative binomial distribution. Since not all count data can definitely be seen as Poisson or negative-binomially distributed, questions of model selection and model checking are examined. Emanating from the example, we also interpret the least squares means, estimated on the link as well as the response scale. Options provided by the SAS procedure NLMIXED for estimating model parameters and for estimating marginal expected values are presented.

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Original study
Effect of feed form, pellet diameter and enzymes supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler during days 21-37 of age
Youssef A. Attia, Walid S. El-Tahawy, Abd El-Hamid E. Abd El-Hamid, Antonino Nizza, Fulvia Bovera, Mohammed A. Al-Harthi and Mahmoud I. El-Kelway
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 34, 1-11 | 14 November 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-034

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A total of 420 21-day-old broilers were wing banded and randomly distributed among 60 cages of 7 birds per cage during days 21-37 of age. A factorial design (4×3) was used in which there were four feed forms (mash vs. pellet diet with diameter 2-2 mm, 2-3 mm and 3-3.5 mm, respectively) and three enzyme treatments (unsupplemented, phytase, phytase plus multi-enzyme). Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 7 broilers per replicate. Body weight gain of broilers fed 2-3 mm-diet was significantly greater than that of those fed mash diet and 2-2 mm or 3-3.5 mm pellet-diet. Feed conversion ratio was the best in broilers fed 2-3 mm and 3-3.5 mm pellet-diets. However, feed intake was significantly lower in broilers fed pellet-diets than that of those fed the mash diet. The production index and economic efficiency were significantly higher in groups fed 2-3 mm pellet diameter compared to those fed 2-2 mm and 3-3.5 mm pellet diets. Digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre and crude ash were significantly and similarly greater in groups fed pellet diets in comparison with those fed mash diet. Enzyme supplementations significantly and similarly increased growth and production index whereas improved feed conversion ratio and economic efficiency than the control group and this concurred with greater digestibility of crude protein, ether extract and crude ash. However, multi-enzymes plus phytase induced greater effect on the production and economic traits than phytase alone showing synergetic effects. Pellet diet at 2-3 mm supplemented with multi-enzyme plus phytase resulted in the highest performance and nutrient digestibility of broilers during day 20-37 d of age.

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Original study
Genetic parameters for longevity measures in Brazilian Holstein cattle using linear and threshold models
Elisandra Lurdes Kern, Jaime Araujo Cobuci, Cláudio Napolis Costa, José Braccini Neto, Gabriel Soares Campos and Concepta Margaret McManus
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 33, 1-12 | 14 November 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-033

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The aim in this study was to estimate variance components and heritability of different longevity measures related to productive life and survival at a specified age, using linear and threshold models, to specify the more appropriate measure to express longevity in Brazilian Holstein cows. Production and reproduction records of Holstein cows were collected from 1991 to 2010, for cows born between 1987 and 2006. Variance components were obtained by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) for measures of productive life and a Bayesian analysis for survival measures. The heritability estimates for longevity measures ranged from 0.06 to 0.09, using the linear model and from 0.05 to 0.18 for traits using the threshold model. This suggests an inexpressive genetic gain using selection for these traits, whereas improvements in environmental factors which affect these animals may lead to greater phenotypic gains. Survival up to 48 months from first calving was the measureing point defined as the most appropriate to be included in future official genetic evaluations of Holstein cattle in Brazil.

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Original study
Reaction norms of direct and maternal effects for weight at 205 days in Polled Nellore cattle in north-eastern Brazil
Diego Pagung Ambrosini, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado, José Braccini Neto, Raimundo Martins Filho, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso and Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 32, 1-11 | 14 November 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-032

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This study investigated the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GEI) for body weight adjusted to 205 days of age (W205) in Polled Nellore cattle raised in north-eastern Brazil using reaction norm (RN) models. The reaction norm hierarchical models (RNHM) included the fixed (linear and quadratic) effect of cow’s age, random effect of contemporary group (CG), RN level and slope for additive direct and maternal genetic effects and permanent maternal environmental effect. The one-step reaction norm model with homogeneous residual variance (RNHM1sHm) yielded the best adjustment compared to the others. Based on this model, the estimates of direct additive and maternal variances and increased with environment improvement (35.34±7.92 kg2 to 134.42±25.97 kg2 and 12.76±5.38 kg2 to 58.22±19.74 kg2 for low and high-quality environments, respectively). The estimates of heritability direct additive and maternal too increased with environmental improvement (0.08±0.02 to 0.24±0.04 and 0.03±0.01 to 0.10±0.04). The correlation between the intercept and the slope of RNHM indicates that animals with higher genetic values respond more efficiently to environmental improvements, representing a scale effect for W205. These results allowed us to characterize the GEI for W205 and showed that specific evaluation should be performed with low, intermediary and high production levels.

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Original study
Impact of chlorine dioxide as water acidifying agent on the performance, ileal microflora and intestinal histology in quails
Asad Sultan, Irshad Ullah, Sarzamin Khan, Rifat Ullah Khan and Zahoor ul Hassan
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 31, 1-9 | 14 November 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-031

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The present study was planned to investigate the effect of different levels of chlorine dioxide on the performance, gut microbiota and intestinal histology of quails. For this purpose, 300 day-old healthy quail chicks were randomly placed in 20 specially designed pens (15 birds/pen) with water troughs containing chlorine dioxide at the level of 0.00 (DW-0.00), 0.3 (DW-0.3), 0.4 (DW-0.4) and 0.5 ppm (DW-0.5) in replicated fashion (5 replicate/treatment) for 28 days. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage increased significantly (P<0.05) in DW-0.5 group. Similarly, liver, gizzard and heart weight increased significantly in treated groups linearly with increasing levels of treatment at day 21 and 28. The results showed that population of Salmonella and E. coli decreased linearly at day 21 and 28 of age. Villus height and goblet cells at day 21 and 28 were significantly higher in DW-0.5 group. The results of the present study suggested that the treatment of chlorine dioxide linearly increased the performance and gut morphology and decreased microbial population in quails.

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Original study
Effect of feed form, pellet diameter and enzymes supplementation on carcass characteristics, meat quality, blood plasma constituents and stress indicators of broilers
Youssef A. Attia, Walid S. El-Tahawy, Abd El-Hamid E. Abd El-Hamid, Antonino Nizza, Mohammed A. Al-Harthi, Mahmoud I. El-Kelway and Fulvia Bovera
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 30, 1-14 | 14 November 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-030

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Four hundred-twenty broilers were used in a factorial design (4×3) in which four feed forms (mash vs. pellet diet with diameter of 2 mm, 3 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively) and three enzymes treatments (unsupplemented, phytase, phytase+multi-enzyme) were used. Each treatment was replicated five times (7 broiler/replicate). Feed form had no effects on most of carcass traits and physical characteristics of meat, but pellet diets decreased the relative weight of gizzard and caecum length. Feeding 3.5 mm pellet diets increased abdominal fat compared to that of broilers fed mash diets. Pellet with 3 mm diameter increased and decreased respectively meat fat and moisture. Pellets with 3.5 mm diameter increased meat ash compared to broilers fed mash diet. Levels of plasma glucose and alanine aminotransferase of broilers fed 2 mm pellet, cholesterol of broilers fed 3 mm pellet and albumin/globulin ratio, monocytes and red blood cells of broilers fed 3.5 mm pellet were significantly higher than those of broilers fed mash diet. Haemoglobin, phagocytic activity, heterophils and heterophils/lymphocyte ratio were higher in groups fed mash diets and 2 mm pellet. Packed cell volume and phagocytic index were the highest in group fed mash diets. Phytase or multi-enzyme+phytase increased carcass yield, total edible parts and decreased inedible parts compared to broilers fed diet without enzyme supplementation. Enzyme supplementations significantly and similarly increased plasma glucose, total protein, triglycerides, red blood cells and phagocytic activity and decreased phagocytic index in comparison to the control group. However, phytase alone decreased cholesterol and increased monocytes by contrast with the control group. Multi-enzymes+phytase induced greater effect on white blood cells than phytase alone.

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Short communication
A second look at leptin and adiponectin actions on the growth of primary porcine myoblasts under serum-free conditions
Katja Will, Judith Kuzinski, Marie-France Palin, Jan-Peter Hildebrandt and Charlotte Rehfeldt
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 29, 1-10 | 29 October 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-029

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Cross-talk between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle may be mediated in part by adipokines. This study was conducted to elucidate further aspects of a possible role of recombinant adiponectin and leptin in the in vitro growth of primary porcine skeletal muscle cells cultured in energetically balanced, growth factor-supplemented, serum-free medium (GF-SFM). Therefore, the effects of these adipokines on cell number (DNA content), DNA synthesis rate, cell death and on key intracellular signalling molecules were investigated. Short-term adiponectin and leptin treatment decreased DNA synthesis, measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation, as early as after 4-h exposure (P<0.01), without alterations in DNA content. Both adipokines attenuated the rate of cell death in terms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture medium after 48-h treatment (P<0.05). The specific activation of p44/42 MAP kinase (MAPK) was reduced (P<0.05) after 15-min incubation with either adipokine. In conclusion, the early decreases in DNA synthesis of primary porcine myoblasts cultured in GF-SFM in response to adiponectin or leptin are related to p44/42 MAPK signalling and adipokine treatment does not impair cell viability.

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Original study
Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) as a tool to discriminate among sheep breeds
María Jesús Alcalde, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Alberto Horcada, Antonio Molina and Manuel Juárez
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 28, 1-10 | 29 October 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-028

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Forty male lambs of five Southern Spanish breeds were used to study the effects of the breed in their sensorial characteristics. The used breeds were: Segureña, Spanish Merino, Grazalema Merino, Churra Lebrijana and Montesina breeds. Milk lambs were slaughtered at 12 kg of live weight. A descriptive sensory evaluation was developed using the longissimus lumborum from each animal by a panel of 12 experts and a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was used to discriminate among them. Generalized Procrustes Analysis clearly differentiated Churra Lebrijana of out the rest breeds. Churra Lebrijana was defined as more tender, juicier and with less lamb odour than the rest of the Southern Spanish lamb breeds. Thus, GPA is able to discriminate among breeds.

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Original study
Association between lactoferrin single nucleotide polymorphisms and milk production traits in Polish Holstein cattle
Adrianna Pawlik, Grazyna Sender, Magdalena Sobczynska, Agnieszka Korwin-Kossakowska, Jolanta Oprzadek and Marek Lukaszewicz
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 27, 1-12 | 29 October 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-027

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Bovine lactoferrin exhibits strong potential for further applications as a mastitis resistance marker. Since selection for mastitis resistance should not interfere with dairy performance, we investigated the association between bovine lactoferrin gene polymorphism and production traits in Polish Holsteins. The associations between four SNPs, localized in the 5’-flanking region and in exons 4 and 9 of the lactoferrin gene, and dairy performance were examined. SNPs were associated with almost all test-day milk performance traits. Significant associations were found between lactoferrin genotypes and the estimated breeding values for those traits. To find out whether the discrepancies between the lactoferrin gene SNP’s influence on phenotype (test-day milk performance) and on estimated breeding values originate from the impact of other factors, we explored the genotype by environment interaction. Substantial impacts of SCC, lactation stage and parity were found. This paper suggests that the genotype by environment interaction may significantly change associations between genes and traits. It is important to include similar analyses to the studies on disease markers before using them in the selection.

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Original study
In-vitro antibacterial sensitivity of Usnea barbata lichen extracted with methanol and ethyl-acetate against selected Staphylococcus species from milk of cows with mastitis
Emrobowansan Monday Idamokoro, Patrick Julius Masika, Voster Muchenje, Daniel Falta and Ezekiel Green
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 25, 1-9 | 29 October 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-025

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This study aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial potential of Usnea barbata lichen as a medicinal plant against selected Staphylococcus species isolated from raw milk of cows. In-vitro screening of methanol and ethyl-acetate extracts from Usnea barbata lichen were evaluated to determine their antimicrobial activity against thirteen different Staphylococcus species. The selected organisms were isolated from raw bovine milk and identified using several biochemical tests and confirmed with API staph kit. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts were evaluated using both the agar well diffusion method (at 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml) and the broth micro-dilution technique to determine the mean zone of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. Both the methanol and ethyl-acetate extracts showed variable antimicrobial activity against the Staphylococcus species with mean zones of inhibition ranging from 0-34 mm in diameter at 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml, respectively. Susceptibility by the Staphylococcus species tested in the methanol and the ethyl-acetate extract was 92.31 % and 53.85 %, respectively. The MIC result for the methanol extract ranged from 0.04 to 10 mg/ml, while that of the ethyl-acetate extract ranged from 0.16 to 5 mg/ml. Results from this study revealed the in vitro microbial activity of Usnea barbata extracts which indicate its potential as a medicinal plant.

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Original study
An attempt to assess the welfare of horses maintained in herd systems
Jadwiga Topczewska
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 24, 1-9 | 29 October 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-024

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The aim of the study was to assess the welfare, using the Welfare Quality criteria, of horses maintained in natural conditions. The study material was a herd of Hucul horses, consisting of 14 mares with offsprings and a stallion, maintained in a herd system on pastures. The research was conducted in the months of March, July and November in 2010 and 2012. Nutrition assessment was based on access to feedstuff, water, including their state. Analysis of levels of maintenance involved evaluating prevailing weather conditions, stocking rate as well as horses’ freedom of movement in the delineated land area. Assessment of the herd’s health condition was based on interviews with the supervising veterinarian. Horses’ behaviour was assessed through observations that relied on their social, affiliative and agonistic behaviours. The condition of the horses was influenced by the period of year, with the best being in November (P≤0.01). Maintenance conditions and exploitation affected the herd’s state of health, with no illnesses or injuries being reported over the analysed period. Seasons of the year had impacts on the horses’ behaviour (P≤0.01). In summer, grazing took place in the late evenings and early mornings, with animals kept under sheds. Intensified feeding was observed in November. No stereotypical behaviours were observed. Heart rate measurements were a pointer to the animals’ emotional balance and attitudes towards people. The observed high level of horses’ welfare suggested that a natural herd system of management ought to be preferred and propagated.

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Original study
The effects of breed, grazing system and concentrate supplementation on the fatty acid profile of the musculus longissimus dorsi and the kidney fat of steers
Matthias Schmutz, Peter Weindl, Salome Carrasco, Gerhard Bellof and Eggert Schmidt
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 23, 1-16 | 1 October 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-023

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The study is aimed at determining the effect of breed (German Simmental vs. German Holstein), grazing system (continuous grazing system [CGS] vs. rotational grazing system [RGS]) and concentrate supplementation (level and type of concentrate) on the fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle and kidney fat of steers. The trial involved four phases: in P1 all animals remained indoors; in P2 and P4 they were allocated on CGS or RGS; during P3 one group remained outdoors, the other indoors. In P1 and P3 the steers were offered grass silage and concentrate. In P3 the indoors group received a supplement with a medium or low-concentrate level. For the last 28 days of P4 the steers were offered a concentrate type with 4.9 % linseed oil or with 1.0 % rapeseed oil. CGS-pasture resulted in higher fatty acid values than RGS-pasture; linseed-oil concentrate resulted in higher ALA, Σn-3 and lower LA, Σn-6 than rapeseed-oil concentrate. German Simmental breed had lower IMF-content and higher Σn-3, Σn-6, n-6/n-3 ratio and PUFA/SFA ratio in longissimus dorsi and kidney fat than German Holstein breed. The proportion of CLA was higher in German Holstein breed than in German Simmental breed (0.56 vs. 0.50 g/100 g FAME). RGS group showed lower ALA and higher n-6/n-3 in longissimus dorsi and kidney fat than CGS-group. Neither the level nor the type of concentrate affected the LD and kidney fat fatty acids. Healthy fatty acids levels were higher in the German Holstein breed meat. The CGS-group meat had higher contents of ALA and EPA. However, the legal requirements for human nutrition and other health related claims could not be met.

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Original study
The economics of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) breeding, rearing and direct marketing
Weert Sweers, Thomas Möhring and Jürgen Müller
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 22, 1-11 | 5 August 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-022

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The aim of this study was to analyse the economic feasibility of water buffalo rearing under rough wet grassland conditions in Germany. Our analysis was based mainly on data from one of Germany's largest water buffalo herds, which was kept by the landscape preservation farm »Gut Darß«. To check a variety of cost-benefit constellations, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation. The overall rearing costs per cow totalled 1,039 € a-1. The direct marketing yields per bull ranged from 3,797 € to 5,298 €. The costs of direct marketing were not generally taken into account because of the high degree of variation and specificity of this position. Reproductive performance, e. g. calf-to-calf interval, was found to have the highest impact on overall economic performance. Our results suggest that water buffalo rearing in Germany has the potential to be economically feasible, at least if direct marketing. Additionally, we conclude that reproductive performance has a major impact on the feasibility of the production system which, in turn, has consequences for breeding concepts.

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Original study
The suitability of infrared temperature measurements for continuous temperature monitoring in gilts
Mariana Schmidt, Christian Ammon, Peter Christian Schön, Christian Manteuffel and Gundula Hoffmann
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 21, 1-12 | 5 August 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-021

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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an infrared thermometer, a pyrometer, could detect the body surface temperature in the orbital area of gilts without contacting them. Furthermore, it was tested whether an increase in the gilts' temperatures could be detected. Therefore, fever was induced. During 11 trials, 43 German Landrace gilts were injected with either a Porcilis AR-T DF (Intervet International B.V., Boxmeer, Netherlands) vaccine or 2 ml of 0.9 % NaCl. A commercial temperature logger (TRIX-8, LogTag Recorders, Auckland, New Zealand) was placed in the vagina to record temperature data every 3 min. The pyrometer (optris cs, Optris, Berlin, Germany) was aimed at where the orbital area of the gilts would be. While they were drinking, temperature measurements were done in that site by the pyrometer. Time periods from 0.25 to 6 h were analysed. Considering the 0.25-h period, a positive correlation (ρ=0.473) between temperatures of the logger and the pyrometer was found for 15 of 39 gilts. The longer the chosen measuring period was, the fewer animals showed a significant correlation between the two temperatures. In contrast to the vaginal logger, the pyrometer cannot detect an increase in the body temperature in all fever-induced gilts. In conclusion, a pyrometer cannot detect the body surface temperature reliably. An increase in the body surface temperature over a short time period (on average 5 h) could not be detected by the pyrometer. The temperature increase measured using the pyrometer was too low and time-delayed compared to the temperature detected by the vaginal logger.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of dietary Lippia citriodora extract on productive performance and meat quality parameters in hares (Lepus europaeus Pall.)
Francesco Vizzarri, Maria Nardoia and Marisa Palazzo
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 20, 1-7 | 30 June 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-020

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Three different dietary doses of Lippia citriodora natural extract were tested in order to verify their effect on productive performance and the meat quality of intensively-reared hare (Lepus europaeus Pall.). The 240 day-trial was conducted on 20 male hares, divided into 4 homogeneous groups of 5 animals each. A control group received a basal diet without any supplementation, and the other three experimental groups received a natural extract of Lippia citriodora, titrated in verbascoside, in the following amounts: 1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g of natural extract/kg feed in the low (LNE), medium (MNE), and high natural extract (HNE) groups, respectively. Natural extract enhanced the quality of the meat: there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in saturated fatty acids and a significant increase (P<0.05) in mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. The oxidative stability of the meat improved, thus highlighting a possible link between the decrease (P<0.05) in TBARS values and an increase (P<0.05) in lipid vitamin content. The cholesterol content of the meat decreased markedly (P<0.01) after the dietary verbascoside treatment, thus improving the health benefits of the meat. These results clearly show the important role of Lippia citriodora extract, titrated in verbascoside, in improving the quality of the meat of intensively-reared hares. In addition the present paper underlines how the use of natural antioxidant in the animal feeding system may provide healthier and low-oxidized products to the final consumer.

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Original study (Abstract)
Relationship between some variables of protein profile and indicators of lipomobilization in dairy cows after calving
Csilla Tóthová, Oskar Nagy and Gabriel Kováč
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 19, 1-9 | 30 June 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-019

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The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the main indicators of lipomobilization and selected variables of protein profile in dairy cows after calving, including immunoglobulins and acute phase proteins, as well as to evaluate the relationships between the altered lipid metabolism and changes in protein profile. Into the evaluation we included 54 clinically healthy dairy cows of a Slovak spotted breed, low-land black spotted breed and their crossbreeds in the period of 1-2 weeks after parturition. Blood samples were analysed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, mmol/l), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, mmol/l), total proteins (TP, g/l), albumin (Alb, g/l), immunoglobulin G (IgG, g/l), haptoglobin (Hp, g/l) and serum amyloid A (SAA, mg/l). In cows with concentrations of NEFA above 0.35 mmol/l (n=20) we found significantly lower mean serum concentrations of total proteins, albumin and IgG than in cows with serum NEFA concentrations below 0.35 mmol/l (n=34) (P<0.001). On the other hand, cows with higher values of NEFA showed significantly higher mean concentrations of BHB, Hp and SAA (P<0.001). The concentrations of NEFA significantly negatively correlated with the values of TP (P<0.001), albumin (P<0.01) and IgG (P<0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between the concentrations of NEFA and BHB, Hp, as well as SAA (P<0.001). Similar correlations were also found between the values of BHB and the variables of protein profile except for albumin. This study indicates strong relationships between NEFA and selected variables of protein profile in cows after parturition.

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Original study (Abstract)
Haematological and biochemical parameters in the blood of an indigenous Croatian breed – Istrian cattle
Martina Bedenicki, Dalibor Potocnjak, Ivica Harapin, Berislav Radisic, Marko Samardzija, Mario Kreszinger, Damir Zubcic, Drazen Djuricic and Ljiljana Bedrica
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 18, 1-7 | 30 June 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-018

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Haematological and biochemical parameters were examined in the blood of 87 cows, bulls and oxen of the indigenous Croatian breed, Istrian cattle. The sample represents 11.93 % of the total adult population. This breed is classified as highly endangered. The age of tested animals was between 2 and 17 years. Cattle were divided into three groups, animals aged 2 to 6 years (n=19), 7 to 10 years (n=37), and older than 10 years (n=31). Animals were kept in the area of Istria County, mostly in stables though occasionally at pasture. The cows were milked twice daily and gave an average of 1,000 litres of milk per year. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit and mean corpuscular volume were determined. Differential analysis was performed by counting blood cells in the blood smear after Pappenheim staining. Biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were determined. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was determined by spectrophotometry. These biochemical and haematological parameters of this Istrian breed were within the physiological range, while slight deviations were observed for certain parameters. The greatest deviation from the physiological range was shown in the concentrations of urea and creatinine. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic profile and haematological indicators for estimating the physiological status of these endangered cattle in Istria, for further investigation and for diagnostic purposes.

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Original study (Abstract)
Fatty acid profile of m. longissimus dorsi of Mangalitsa and Moravka pig breeds
Milica Petrović, Martin Wähner, Čedomir Radović, Dragan Radojković, Nenad Parunović, Radomir Savić and Nenad Brkić
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 17, 1-12 | 30 June 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-017

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The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and fatty acid content in m. longissimus dorsi (MLD) of two indigenous pig breeds (ML – Swallow-belly Mangalitsa and M – Moravka) reared in free range farm conditions and fed complete mixtures used for commercial meat pig genotypes. The body mass of ML and M pigs at slaughter was, on average, 107.14 and 107.61 kg, respectively. In MLD of M pigs, more total fat was measured compared to ML breed (6.96 % compared to 5.10 %, P<0.05). Protein content in MLD of ML pigs was higher by +0.92 % (P<0.01) compared to M pigs. Male castrates of M pigs had more fat compared to gilts of the same breed (8.64 compared to 5.29 %), and the 3.35 % difference between mean values was statistically significant (P<0.05). The breed of pigs influenced the total saturated fatty acids (P=0.011) and mono-unsaturated fatty acid (P=0.003) contents, but not the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P=0.325). In the case of saturated fatty acids in the MLD of ML and M pigs, the most common were C16:0 (25.05 % and 25.53 %) and C18:0 (12.73 % and 14.40 %). The MLD of M pigs contained 1.67 % more stearic acid compared to ML pigs (P=0.004). Pigs of ML, compared to M pigs, had more C18:1cis-9 (+2.31 %), C16:1 (+0.49 %), C17:1 (+0.10 %) and less C20:1cis-11 (–0.25 %). The content of two essential fatty acids, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, did not vary according to breed or sex of pigs (P>0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was higher than optimal (18.7 for breed ML and 13.7 for M).

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Original study (Abstract)
Sister chromatid exchange analysis in cats (Felis catus)
Olga Szeleszczuk, Marta Kuchta-Gładysz, Ewa Wójcik, Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur, Tomasz Wojnar, Beata Godynia and Piotr Niedbała
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 16, 1-10 | 30 June 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-016

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Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is one of the cytogenetic methods which diagnoses damage to chromosomes and allows evaluation of the mutagenic influence of a given factor on a cell’s DNA. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the level of spontaneous and inductive SCE in the domestic cat. The research was carried out on 23 domestic cats Felis catus. Chromosome preparations were prepared from lymphocytes of peripheral blood after 72 h of in vitro breeding with the addition of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in five different concentrations: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 μg/ml. Chromosomes were stained by means of the fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) technique in order to carry out microscopic analysis. It was stated that the level of spontaneous SCE in the domestic cat occurs at a concentration 0.5 μg/ ml on the basis of research previously carried out. Higher concentrations of this substance have a genotoxic action and damage DNA of chromosomes and induct additional SCEs in chromosomes of this species. Moreover, it was stated that the number of SCEs is higher in males than females. Our research also proved that the number of exchanges increases along with age in cats of both sexes.

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Original study (Abstract)
Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profile of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene: Na+, K+-ATPase β2-subunit (ATP1B2)
Shen Song, Jinlong Huo, Feng Yuan, Yina Ou-Yang, DaLin Li, YueYun Yuan, Tao Chen, LianJun Li and YongWang Miao
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 15, 1-12 | 30 June 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-015

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The Na+, K+-ATPase is a transmembrane carrier protein which plays an important role in Na-K transport and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to obtain the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of water buffalo Na+, K+-ATPase β2-subunit (ATP1B2) using RT-PCR and to investigate the characterizations of its sequence and tissue expression patterns. Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of water buffalo (ATP1B2) encodes an enzyme of 290 amino acid residues with a deduced molecular weight of 33.39 KDa and a PI of 8.37. Water buffalo (ATP1B2) was presumed to have a signal peptide, a strong hydrophobic region and to exert its function in the plasma membrane with high reliability. In addition, water buffalo (ATP1B2)has a conserved Na+, K+-ATPase β domain which belongs to Na+, K+-ATPase superfamily. The sequence of water buffalo (ATP1B2) gene shares 97.6, 97.4, 92.2, 93.2, 89.9, 93.2, 89.5 and 62.9 % identify with its homologous sequence of cattle, sheep, dog, human, mouse, baboon, rat and African clawed frog, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the CDS of (ATP1B2) gene showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. The (ATP1B2) gene was widely expressed in the tissues examined, being high in the pituitary gland and brain, moderate in the muscle, spleen, liver, mammary gland, kidney and rumen, weak in the heart, small intestines and skin, and not expressed in the lung and adipose tissue. This study will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene.

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Original study (Abstract)
Joint genealogical analysis as a tool for diversity evaluation in Pinzgau cattle populations
Ivan Pavlík, Johann Sölkner, Ondrej Kadlečík, Radovan Kasarda, Gábor Mészáros, Christian Fuerst and Birgit Fuerst-Waltl
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 14, 1-12 | 23 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-014

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The presented paper gives an overview about genetic diversity in Pinzgau populations in Austria and Slovakia. In total, 12442 animals were included in the study representing the reference population. All living herdbook cows, dual purpose and beef, from both countries with a maximum foreign gene proportion of 12.5 % were considered. Thus, four subpopulations were analysed. Parameters of diversity based on probability of identity-by-descent and probability of gene origin were computed by the methods of pedigree analysis. The average inbreeding coefficient (five generations taken into account) was 0.0186 (ΔF=0.0041), 0.0242 (ΔF=0.0047), 0.0151 (ΔF=0.0026), and 0.0126 (ΔF=0.0006) in the Austrian dairy (AD), the Austrian beef (AB), the Slovak dairy (SD) and the Slovak beef (SB) subpopulation, respectively. Effective population size ranged from 122.5 (AD) to 809.4 (SB). Effective number of founders was 67.3 and 106.6 in AD and SD and 73 and 212.3 in the AB and SB subpopulations. Effective number of ancestors was 29.59; 34.42; 42.36 and 73.81 in AD, AB, SD and SB, respectively. Effective number of founder genomes was 15.32; 18.15; 23.41 and 41 in AD, AB, SD and SB subpopulations, respectively. Similarities between subpopulations were calculated based on a cosine approach. The highest similarity was found between AD and AB (cosine value 0.9954). SD and AD subpopulations were very similar (cosine value 0.9181).

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Original study (Abstract)
Comparison of different chromatin staining techniques for bull sperm
Katarzyna Andraszek, Dorota Banaszewska, Magdalena Czubaszek, Ewa Wójcik and Małgorzata Szostek
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 13, 1-15 | 23 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-013

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Morphological analysis of semen is a very important step in fertility assessment, but many semen defects are not detectable at the morphological level. These include pathological changes in sperm chromatin structure. During mammalian spermiogenesis, histone proteins associated with DNA structure are replaced by specific protamines, with which chromatin does not form nucleosomal complexes. In the fully developed, mature sperm, the histones are replaced with protamines. Disruptions of nucleoprotein structure can be treated as possible indicators of the biological value of spermatozoa. The experimental material consisted of sperm from one-and-a-half-year-old bulls, isolated post mortem from the tail of the epididymis. The smears were stained with silver nitrate (AgNO3), acridine orange (AO), aniline blue (AB) and chromomycin A3 (CMA3). Sperm dimensions largely depend on individual variability among the bulls. In most cases, differences in sperm dimensions were identified between individuals, which was confirmed in the statistics. Sperm with elevated, abnormal histone levels were proportionally quite scarce (1.4 %). Studies of nuclear proteins in the context of infertility demonstrate the important influence of normal chromatin structure on sperm functions.

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Original study (Abstract)
Genetic parameters for milk production and persistency in the Iranian Holstein population by the multitrait random regression model
Khabat Kheirabadi and Sadegh Alijani
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 12, 1-12 | 23 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-012

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For genetic dissection of milk, fat, and protein production traits in the Iranian primiparous Holstein dairy cattle, records of these traits were analysed using a multitrait random regression test-day model. Data set included 763 505 test-day records from 88 204 cows calving since 1993. The (co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian method. The obtained results indicated that as in case of genetic correlations within traits, genetic correlations between traits decrease as days in milk (DIM) got further apart. The strength of the correlations decreased with increasing DIM, especially between milk and fat. Heritability estimates for 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were 0.31, 0.29, and 0.29, respectively. Heritabilities of test-day milk, fat, and protein yields for selected DIM were higher in the end than at the beginning or the middle of lactation. Heritabilities for persistency ranged from 0.02 to 0.24 and were generally highest for protein yield (0.05 to 0.24) and lowest for fat yield (0.02 to 0.17), with milk yield having intermediate values (0.06 to 0.22). Genetic correlations between persistency measures and 305-d production were higher for protein and milk yield than for fat yield. The genetic correlation of the same persistency measures between milk and fat yields averaged 0.76, and between milk and protein yields averaged 0.82.

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Short communication (Abstract)
A note on precise tracking of suckling position by piglets
Janko Skok and Dejan Škorjanc
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 11, 1-7 | 23 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-011

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Piglets establish a relatively stable teat order after the first week of lactation, when each piglet chooses a preferred teat or teat pair where they tend to suckle permanently. The mechanism underlying the choice that leads each piglet to the same suckling position is still not clarified. In the present case study, piglets with different preferred suckling positions (anterior, posterior) were transferred to a foster sow after completion of the regular 4 weeks of lactation by their biological mother. For both sows, which were identical based on parity, litter size and farrowing date, we examined the suckling positions of the experimental piglets. Piglets occupied exactly the same suckling positions on both sows. Thus, piglets precisely track positions on the mammary complex of a sows udder even when previously learned discriminable stimuli have been changed, such as odours, tastes, morphologies (of sows udder or the sow itself), vocalizations, and neighbouring littermates. Our observation indicates that the spatial configuration of the mammary complex, which is determined by two parallel rows of teats arranged in pairs, can hypothetically be proposed as an important cue for piglet suckling orientation. Therefore, additional attention should be given to the exact spatial position of piglets (and vacant positions) on the mammary complex of biological and foster mothers in order to reduce stress from cross-fostering, which is standard practice in contemporary piglet production.

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Original study (Abstract)
Milk of Polish Red and White cows as a source of nutritionally valuable fatty acids
Agata Adamska, Jarosława Rutkowska, Małgorzata Tabaszewska and Małgorzata Białek
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 10, 1-10 | 22 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-010

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Local bovine breeds are usually more resistant to diseases and better adapted to environmental and nutritional conditions than the imported ones. The aim of this study was to assess the content of individual health-related fatty acids in milk of Polish Red and White breed regarding the composition of forages. One herd of cows (n=15) were fed seasonally using locally produced forages: grazed grass, containing high amounts (55 g·100 g-1 fatty acid on average) of polyunsaturated fatty acid, and preserved forages, rich in saturated fatty acid (30 g·100 g-1 fatty acid on average). The content of butyric acid in milk averaged 4.21 g·100 g-1 fatty acid regardless of season and was higher compared to that reported for other breeds. Milk from the summer season had high content (14.67 g·100 g-1 fatty acid) of total short-chain saturated fatty acid (C4:0-C12:0), that from non-pasture season (winter) had high content of odd- and branched chain fatty acids (6.28 g·100 g-1 fatty acid). Milk fat of studied cows had relatively lower content of nutritionally controversial myristic C14:0 and palmitic C16:0 acids as comparing to milk in other breeds and proved an excellent source of vaccenic acid trans-11 C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acids cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, especially during the grazing season.

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Original study (Abstract)
A behavioural study of the Greek »Thrakian« sheep breed grazing on the rangelands of Rhodope, Greece
Konstantinos Karasabbidis, Maria Yiakoulaki, Agapi Papazafeiriou, Ioannis Mountousis and Konstantinos Papanikolaou
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 9, 1-10 | 22 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-009

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The Greek Thrakian sheep breed is under extinction and information about their grazing behaviour is important to both welfare and performances. The grazing behaviour of the Thrakian sheep breed was investigated in the mountainous rangelands of North-Eastern Thrace, Greece from April to October 2012. Direct observations were carried out on six female sheep for two consecutive days at each month and the time spent on grazing, resting and rumination was recorded. Also, the daily distance travel by sheep flock was recorded with a handheld Global Positioning System. Sheep travelled on average 4.5 km/day and they walked their shortest distances during the summer months (July and August). Sheep spent 324.3 min/day (64.2 % of their grazing activities) on feeding while they devoted less time (P<0.05) to resting and ruminating (134.4 and 46.4 min/day, respectively). The higher values of resting and ruminating were recorded during summer (163.2 min/day and 54.2 min/day, respectively). Time spent on grazing by sheep had significant (P<0.05) negative relationship to air temperature (r=−0.966) while the resting and ruminating time had a positive one (r=0.935; P<0.01 and r=0.815; P<0.05, respectively).

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Original study (Abstract)
Microsatellite based genetic diversity among the three water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations in Turkey
Emel Özkan Ünal, M. İhsan Soysal, Eren Yüncü, Nihan Dilşad Dağtaş and İnci Togan
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 8, 1-12 | 19 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-008

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In this study, twenty microsatellite loci were used to define genetic diversity among 56 water buffalo samples. Their somatic tissues (the skin and cartilage tissues from ears) and DNAs were deposited in Turkish Gene Banks. Samples of healthy animals were collected from three different geographic regions: Northern Turkey, North-Western Turkey and Eastern Thrace. Three (loci CSSM57, ETH3) to ten (locus CSSM47) different alleles were identified per micro-satellite locus in a total of 103 alleles. PIC values for the micro-satellite loci analysed ranged from 0.14 (CSSM32) to 0.82 (CSSM47) with a mean of 0.4945. In all of the populations for each of the loci, the observed heterozygosities (HO) were greater than the expected heterozygosities (HE), indicating that populations suffered from bottleneck. HE per population ranged between 0.5359 in the Black Sea Region and 0.5208 in the Aegean-South Marmara Region. Within the population, inbreeding estimates (FIS) was positive in only four of the 20 loci analysed. Individuals of the different geographic populations did not cluster on the neighbour joining tree which was constructed on the basis of allele sharing distances. Population differentiation was further visualized by Factorial Correspondence Analysis and determined by the pairwise estimations of fixation index (FST) and Nei’s standard genetic distance (Da). The results revealed that populations have inertia (as depicted by Factorial Correspondence Analysis), they are differentiated significantly but little (by pairwise FST values) and the least genetic distance is between Black Sea Region and Thrace Region. Comparative studies indicated that the genetic diversity of water buffalo harboured in the Gene Banks of Turkey is at the lower end of the diversity spectrum. This study thus highlights the usefulness of heterologous bovine microsatellite markers to assess the genetic variability in Anatolian water buffalo breeds. Furthermore, the results can be utilized for future breeding strategies and conservation.

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Original study (Abstract)
Fatty acid composition and sensory analysis in Boer kids meat
Angela Cividini, Ana Kaić, Dragomir Kompan and Klemen Potočnik
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 7, 1-9 | 19 May 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-007

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This study was undertaken to characterize the fatty acid profile and sensory properties of longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Boer kids as affected by sex (17 male, 15 female) and slaughter weight (pre-weaned 20 kg, post-weaned 30 kg). Regarding sex differences, higher percentage amounts of lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, linolenic and docosapentaenoic acids were found in LD muscle of male compared to female kids, whereas greater amounts of oleic acid were detected in LD muscle of female kids. Also, LD of male kids contained higher percentage amounts of saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) while higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were detected in LD of female kids. Regarding slaughter weight, percentage amounts of lauric, myristic, margaric, pentadecanoic, linolenic, linoleic, arachidonic and docosapentaenoic acids significantly decreased with age (P≤0.001), while percentage amounts of heptadecenoic and oleic acids significantly increased (P≤0.001). LD muscle from lighter kids contained higher percentage amounts of SFA and PUFA, while heavier kids had higher percentage amounts of MUFA and n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Except meat colour, sensory traits (marbling, off-odour, flavour, juiciness and tenderness) were neither significantly affected by sex nor slaughter age.

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Short communication (Abstract)
Polymorphism in the promoter of TLR4 gene by PCR-RFLP and its association with somatic cell score in Chinese Holstein
Zhixiong Li, Huilin Zhang, Hongliang Wang, Ling Chen, Lijun Wang, Xiaolin Liu, Ailong Song and Caixia Ru
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 6, 1-6 | 12 March 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-006

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The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the polymorphism in the promoter of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on mastitis and milk production traits. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) G-1539A before 5’-upstream region and G+265C in the 5’-UTR of TLR4 gene were detected, and genetic association analysis was applied on 421 Chinese Holstein cows. The statistical analysis indicated that two SNPs was significantly associated with 305 Days milk yield (P<0.05) and somatic cell score (SCS) respectively (P<0.01). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the promoter of TLR4 are associated with milk production traits and SCS, and may be used as a possible candidate for marker-assisted selection and management in Holstein cattle breeding program.

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Original study (Abstract)
Empirical comparison of association and admixture mapping for body weight using F2 mice data set
Burak Karacaören
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 5, 1-6 | 11 March 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-005

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Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to detect mutations in genes related with complex traits. Undetected shared ancestry within samples of individuals could lead to the detection of false genomic signals in association mapping. Pedigree-based relationship matrices or genomic relationship matrices could be used in a mixed model to predict and correct for genetic stratifications. Genotypic information of founder populations could also be used to explore patterns of inheritance for complex traits by admixture mapping. An F2 population was created using M16 and ICR mouse lines for studying body weight at 8 weeks of age. Genotypes were collected for 1,813 SNPs for each animal, including the founders. Bayesian residuals were used for population stratification in the admixture model. Association and admixture mapping detected similar genomic signals from chromosome 10. Our results provide empirical proof that gene flow from ancestral populations could be traced by admixture mapping with founder genotypes.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of betaine as an osmolyte on broiler chickens exposed to different levels of water salinity
Masoud Alahgholi, Sayed Ali Tabeidian, Majid Toghyani and Sayed Sadra Ale Saheb Fosoul
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 4, 1-12 | 11 March 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-004

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This trial was conducted to examine the effect of betaine on performance, humoral immunity, small intestinal morphology and blood osmotic pressure parameters of broiler chicks consumed different levels of water salinity. Total of 520 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used with 2×4 factorial arrangement in completely randomized design. Experimental treatments were consisting of 2 levels of betaine supplementation (0 and 1.5 g/kg) and 4 levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) (250, 1,500, 3,000, 4,500 ppm). In this trial daily feed intake (DFI), daily weight gain (DWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded on days 14, 28 and 48. Small intestinal morphology was evaluated at the age of 28. Humoral immunity was assessed by evaluation of antibody titre against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and also Newcastle and influenza antigens. At the end of the experiment, blood was taken and concentration of plasma Na, K, Cl and haematocrit blood percentage was determined. Results showed that DWG significantly decreased and FCR increased in 4 500 ppm of water TDS in growing, finishing and whole period of broilers production (P<0.05). Furthermore increased plasma Na and blood hematocrit percentage observed in 4 500 ppm of water salinity (P<0.05). Betaine significantly increased DFI during growing phase (P<0.05). Betaine supplementation substantially increased antibody titre against influenza and also bursa of fabricius relative weight (P<0.05). Additionally, betaine inclusion increased villi height in ileum (P<0.05). In conclusion, increasing trend of water TDS affect chickens performance and betaine supplementation is able to improve antibody titre against influenza.

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Original study (Abstract)
Glucose infusion response on some metabolic parameters in dairy cows during transition period
Enrico Fiore, Matteo Gianesella, Francesca Arfuso, Elisabetta Giudice, Giuseppe Piccione, Marcello Lora, Annalisa Stefani and Massimo Morgante
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 3, 1-9 | 11 March 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-003

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glucose tolerance test (GTT) on glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in dairy cows during prepartum and postpartum period. Forty Two clinically healthy Holstein cows were enrolled in two high producing dairy farms in the Northeast Italy. All animals were divided into two equal groups on the basis of the farm of origin: Group A (farm located in Vicenza) and Group B (farm located in Padua). Body condition score (BCS) was determined for both groups. GTT was performed 7±5 days before and 7±5 days after calving. Blood samples were collected from each animal before (T0) and after the administration of glucose at different times. Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, NEFA and BHB was evaluated. Application of two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant effect of farm and a significant effect of transition period (prepartum and postpartum) on BCS for both groups. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of infusion glucose time, transition period and farm on glucose, insulin, NEFA and BHB. No significant difference was observed between Groups A and B and a significant effect of transi tion period and glucose infusion was found on all parameters studied. Results confirm that glucose is an important direct controller of metabolic response in dairy cows during the transition period because of the inappropriate energetic supply that characterizing this physiological phases.

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Original study (Abstract)
Usefulness of discriminant analysis in the morphofunctional classification of Spanish dog breeds
Ana González, Manuel Luque, Mariano Herrera, Carlos González, Elena Angón and Evangelina Rodero
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 2, 1-19 | 11 March 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-002

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The aim of this study was to determine whether the classification of local Spanish breeds of dogs, based on morphological traits, matches or differs from the classification based on the dogs' breeding goals. A total of 15 biometric measurements and 10 functional indices were obtained in 1,365 dogs (709 females and 656 males). The dogs we measured belonged to 16 different breeds, 14 of which were officially recognized by the Spanish Royal Canine Society. Similar average values of morphometric traits and indices (P<0.001) were obtained in both sexes: the Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz was the breed with the smallest format and the Pyrenean and Spanish Mastiff, the largest. In the case of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) groups, significant differences (P<0.001) for morphometric traits were found, and in both sexes, the third group was the one with the smallest format and the second group, the largest. The differences obtained were more marked between all groups than within groups, and the morphological characteristics were similar, in accordance with the purpose for which the breeds were bred. Therefore, the existence of a morphologic pattern is accepted both in the breeds and the functional groups. Two as yet officially unrecognized breeds, the Orito and Paternino Hound, must be included in the fifth and the first FCI groups, respectively. When the Orito Hound is recognized, it will be added to the fifth FCI group and the word »hound« will be deleted from the name Paternino breed.

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Original study (Abstract)
Effect of rumen-protected methionine on production and composition of early lactating Shami goats milk and growth performance of their kids
Mohmmad A. Al-Qaisi and Hosam H. Titi
Arch Tierz 57 (2014) 1, 1-11 | 11 March 2014 | doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-001

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This study was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of the University of Jordan in the Jordan valley to evaluate the effect of supplementing rumen-protected methionine to early lactating Shami goats on milk production, composition, fatty acid profile, and growth performance of their kids. Twenty-four fresh lactating Shami goats were randomly assigned into three dietary treatment groups (eight each) in a completely randomized design. Diets were a control with no supplements or supplemented with either 2.5, or 5.0 g/head/d rumenprotected methionine. The experiment started exactly after kidding and lasted for 60 days thereafter. Production variables studied were milk production, milk composition, body weights, feed intake, kids weaning weight, and milk fatty acids. Daily milk production and energy corrected milk were not affected by protected me thionine supplementation. Milk Percentages of fat, protein, total solids, and casein were also not affected by protected methionine supplementation. Likewise, fat and protein yields were not different among dietary treatments of protected methionine. No differences in milk fatty acids composition were observed by supplementing rumen protected methionine in the experiment. Feed intake, feed to milk ratio, and final body weight of dams were not changed among treatments. No differences were observed in weaning weights, average daily gain, and milk to gain ratio of kids born to dams in the experiment regardless to sex of kids. In conclusion, results indicated that supplementing rumen protected methionine to dairy goats diet did not improve their milking performance, the composition of their milk, or growth performance of their kids.

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